Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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When a complex sentence passes into indirect discourse, its principal verb is treated like the verb of a simple sentence and stands either in a finite mood (after ὅτι or ὡς) or in the infinitive or in the participle.

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After primary tenses, all subordinate verbs retain the original mood and tense.

λέγουσιν ὡς, ἐπειδάν τις ἀγαθὸς ὤν τελευτήσῃ, μεγάλην μοῖραν καὶ τι_μὴν ἔχει they say that, when a good man dies, he enjoys great esteem and honour P. Crat. 398b, προλέγω ὅτι, ὁπότερ' ἂν ἀποκρί_νηται, ἐξελεγχθήσεται I tell you in advance that, whichever answer he makes, he will be confuted P. Eu. 275e, παράδειγμα σαφὲς καταστήσατε, δς ἂν ἀφιστῆται θανάτῳ ζημιωσόμενον give plain warning that whoever revolts shall be punished with death T. 3.40 ( = ὅτι ζημιώσεται).


After secondary tenses, all subordinate verbs in the present, future, or perfect indicative, and all subjunctives, are usually changed to the corresponding tenses of the optative, or they are retained. Subjunctives with ἄν lose ἄν on passing into the optative.

a. Optative for Indicative and Indicative Retained.—εἶπε . . . ὅτι ἄνδρα ἄγοι . . . δν εἶρξαι δέοι he said that he was bringing a man whom it was necessary to lock up X. H. 5.4.8 ( = ἄγω, δεῖ), Κῦρος . . . τῷ Κλεάρχῳ ἐβόα_ ἄγειν τὸ στράτευμα κατὰ μέσον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων, ὅτι ἐκεῖ βασιλεὺς εἴη Cyrus shouted to Clearchus to lead his troops against the enemy's centre because the king was there X. A. 1.8.12 ( = ἐστί), εὖ δὲ εἰδέναι ἔφασαν ὅτι παρέσοιντο for they said that they knew well that they would come X. H. 6.5.19 ( = ἴσμεν ὅτι παρέσονται), ἔλεγεν ὅτι ἕτοιμος εἴη ἡγεῖσθαι αὐτοῖς . . . εἰς τὸ Δέλτα . . ., ἔνθα πολλὰ κἀ_γαθὰ λήψοιντο he said that he was ready to be their leader to the Delta, where they would obtain an abundance of good things X. A. 7.1.33 ( = ἕτοιμός εἰμι, λήψεσθε), ἔλεγον ὅτι . . . ἥκοιεν ἡγεμόνας ἔχοντες, οἳ αὐτούς, ἐὰ_ν σπονδαὶ γένωνται, ἄξουσιν ἔνθεν ἕξουσι τὰ ἐπιτήδεια they said that they had come with guides who would lead them, should a truce be made, to a place where they would get their supplies 2. 3. 6 ( = ἥκομεν, ὑ_μᾶς, ἕξετε), ἀγαπήσειν με ἔφασκεν, εἰ τὸ σῶμα σώσω he said I might think myself well off if I saved my life L. 12.11 ( = ἀγαπήσεις, εἰ σώσεις).

N.—Except in the future the change to the optative of the indicative after εἰ is rare: as προσῆλθον λέγων ὅτι . . . ἕτοιμός εἰμι, εἴ τινα βούλοιτο ( = βούλει), παραδοῦναι βασανίζειν I went and said that I was ready to give up the slaves to be tortured, if he wished any one of them L. 7.34, εἶπεν ὅτι Δέξιππον μὲν οὐκ ἐπαινοίη, εἰ ταῦτα πεποιηκὼς εἴη he said that he did not commend Dexippus, if he had done this X. A. 6.6.25 ( = ἐπαινῶ, εἰ πεποίηκε).

b. Optative for Subjunctive and Subjunctive Retained.—εἶπεν ὅτι οἰμώξοιτο, εἰ μὴ σιωπήσειεν he said that he would smart for it unless he kept quiet X. H. 2.3.56 ( = οἰμώξει, ἐὰ_ν μὴ σιωπήσῃς), οὐκ ἔφασαν ἰέναι, ἐὰ_ν μή τις αὐτοῖς χρήματα διδῷ they refused to go unless a largess were given them X. A. 1.4.12 ( = οὐκ ἴμεν), εἶπεν ὅτι ἐπιτίθεσθαι μέλλοιεν αὐτῷ, ὁπότε ἀπάγοι τὸ στράτευμα he said that they intended to attack him when he led his forces away X. C. 7.5.2 ( = μέλλουσι, σοί, ὁπόταν ἀπάγῃς), τοὺς ἵππους ἐκέλευε φυλάττειν μένοντας τοὺς ἀγαγόντας ἕως ἄν τις σημαίνῃ he ordered that those who brought the horses should guard them and wait until orders were given 4. 5. 36, ὤμοσεν Ἀ_γησιλά_ῳ, εἰ σπείσαιτο ἕως ἔλθοιεν οὓς πέμψειε πρὸς βασιλέα_ ἀγγέλους, διαπρά_ξεσθαι κτλ. he swore to Agesilaus that, if he would make a truce until the messengers whom he would send to the king should arrive, he would bring it about that, etc. X. Ages. 1.10 ( = ἐὰ_ν σπείσῃς ἕως ἂν ἔλθωσιν οὓς ἂν πέμψω, διαπρά_ξομαι).

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Subordinate verbs in the imperfect, aorist (but see cross2623 c, N. 3), or pluperfect indicative, and all optatives, remain unchanged.

ἐπιστεῖλαι δὲ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς τοὺς ἐφόρους . . . εἰπεῖν ὡς ὧν μὲν πρόσθεν ἐποίουν μέμφοιντο αὐτοῖς κτλ. they reported that the ephors enjoined them to say that they blamed them for what they had done before X. H. 3.2.6 ( = ἐποιεῖτε, μεμφόμεθα ὑ_μῖν), ἤλπιζον τοὺς Σικελοὺς ταύτῃ, οὓς μετέπεμψαν, ἀπαντήσεσθαι they expected that the Sicels whom they had sent for would meet them here T. 7.80, εἶπεν ὅτι ἔλθοι ἂν εἰς λόγους, εἰ ὁμήρους λάβοι he said that he would enter into negotiations if he should receive hostages X. H. 3.1.20 (ἔλθοιμ' ἄν, εἰ λάβοιμι). See cross2623 a, cross2625.


The following table shows where, after εἶπεν ὅτι or ἔφη, the optative (and infinitive after ἔφη) may be substituted for the indicative or subjunctive in conditional sentences in indirect discourse.

εἶπεν ὅτιἔφη
εἴ τι ἔχω, δίδωμιεἴ τι ἔχοι, διδοίη (διδόναι)
εἴ τι εἶχεν, ἐδίδουνεἴ τι εἶχεν, ἐδίδου (διδόναι)
εἴ τι ἔσχον, ἔδωκαεἴ τι ἔσχεν, δοίη [7] (δοῦναι)
ἐά_ν τι ἔχω, δώσωεἴ τι ἔχοι, δώσοι (δώσειν)
εἴ τι ἕξω, δώσωεἴ τι ἕξοι, δώσοι (δώσειν)
ἐά_ν τι ἔχω, δίδωμιεἴ τι ἔχοι, διδοίη (διδόναι)

In the following sentences there is no change of mood after ὅτι:

εἴ τι εἶχον, ἐδίδουν ἄνεἴ τι εἶχεν, ἐδίδου ἄν (διδόναι ἄν)
εἴ τι ἔσχον, ἔδωκα ἄνεἴ τι ἔσχεν, ἔδωκεν ἄν (δοῦναι ἄν)
εἴ τι ἔχοιμι, διδοίην ἄνεἴ τι ἔχοι, διδοίη ἄν (διδόναι ἄν)

Temporal and relative sentences (cp. cross2561) are converted in the same way. For an infinitive representing an imperative in the apodosis, see cross2633 c.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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