Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The predicate adjective is employed

a. With intransitive verbs signifying to be, become, and the like ( cross917): ἡ δὲ χάρις ἄδηλος γεγένηται the favour has been concealed Aes. 3.233. So with active verbs which take a preposition: νόμους ἔθεσθε ἐπ' ἀδήλοις τοῖς ἀδικήσουσι you have enacted laws with regard to offenders who are unknown D. 21.30.

b. With transitive verbs: (1) to qualify the object of the verb directly and immediately: τοὺς κακοὺς χρηστοὺς νομίζειν to judge bad men good S. O. T. 609, (2) to express the result of the action (the proleptic use, cross1579). So with αὔξειν grow, αἴρειν raise with μέγας great, μετέωρος on high, ὑψηλός high, μακρός large.


With verbs of saying and thinking the predicate adjective is usually connected with its noun by εἶναι, with verbs of perceiving, showing, by ὤν ( cross2106): οὐδένα γὰρ οἶμαι δαιμόνων εἶναι κακόν for I think no one of the gods is base E. I. T. 391, δηλοῖ ψευδῆ τὴν διαθήκην οὖσαν it shows that the will is false D. 45.34. But εἶναι is sometimes omitted ( cross945), as τὰ_ς γὰρ καλὰ_ς πρά_ξεις ἁπά_σα_ς ἀγαθὰ_ς ὡμολογήσαμεν for we have agreed that all honourable actions are good P. Pr. 359e. On the omission of ὤν, see cross2117. For εἶναι with verbs of naming and calling, see cross1615.


Several adjectives of time, place, order of succession, etc., are used as predicates where English employs an adverb or a preposition with its case: ἀφικνοῦνται τριταῖοι they arrive on the third day X. A. 5.3.2, κατέβαινον σκοταῖοι they descended in the dark 4. 1. 10. In such cases the adjective is regarded as a quality of the subject; whereas an adverb would regard the manner of the action.

a. Time, place: χρόνιος late, ὄρθριος in the morning, δευτεραῖος on the second day, ποσταῖος how many days? ὑπαίθριος in the open air.

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b. Order of succession: πρῶτος, πρότερος first, ὕστερος later, μέσος in the midst, τελευταῖος last, ὕστατος last.

N.—When one action is opposed to another in order of sequence, the adverbs πρῶτον, πρότερον, ὕστατον, etc., not the adjectives πρῶτος, etc.. must be used: πρῶτον μὲν ἐδάκρυ_ε πολὺν χρόνον . . . εἶτα δὲ ἔλεξε τοιάδε first he wept for a long time, then he spoke as follows X. A. 1.3.2. Hence distinguish

πρῶτος τῇ πόλει προσέβαλεhe was the first to attack the city.
πρώτῃ τῇ πόλει προσέβαλεthe city was the first place he attacked.
πρῶτον τῇ πόλει προσέβαλεhis first act was to attack the city.

The same rule applies in the case of μόνος, μόνον, as μόνην τὴν ἐπιστολην ἔγραψα this is the only letter I wrote, μόνον ἔγραψα τὴν ἐπιστολήν I only wrote (but did not send) the letter. But this distinction is not always observed (Aes. 3.69).


So also with adjectives of degree, mental attitude, manner, etc.: φέρονται οἱ λίθοι πολλοί the stones are thrown in great numbers X. A. 4.7.7, τοὺς νεκροὺς ὑποσπόνδους ἀπέδοσαν they restored the dead under a truce T. 1.63, οἱ θεοὶ εὐμενεῖς πέμπουσί σε the gods send you forth favourably X. C. 1.6.2. So with μέγας high, ἄσμενος gladly, ἑκούσιος, ἑκών willingly, ὅρκιος under oath, αἰφνίδιος suddenly. On ἄλλος, see cross1272.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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