]. PREDICATE ADJECTIVES
The predicate adjective is employed
a. With intransitive verbs signifying to be, become, and the like ( cross917):
Aes. 3.233. So with active verbs which take a preposition:
ἡ δὲ χάρις ἄδηλος γεγένηται the favour has been concealed
νόμους ἔθεσθε ἐπ' ἀδήλοις τοῖς ἀδικήσουσι you have enacted laws with regard to offenders who are unknown
b. With transitive verbs: (1) to qualify the object of the verb directly and immediately:
S. O. T. 609, (2) to express the result of the action (the proleptic use, cross1579). So with αὔξειν grow, αἴρειν raise with μέγας great, μετέωρος on high, ὑψηλός high, μακρός large.
τοὺς κακοὺς χρηστοὺς νομίζειν to judge bad men good
With verbs of saying and thinking the predicate adjective is usually connected with its noun by εἶναι, with verbs of perceiving, showing, by ὤν ( cross2106):
E. I. T. 391,
οὐδένα γὰρ οἶμαι δαιμόνων εἶναι κακόν for I think no one of the gods is base
D. 45.34. But εἶναι is sometimes omitted ( cross945), as
δηλοῖ ψευδῆ τὴν διαθήκην οὖσαν it shows that the will is false
P. Pr. 359e. On the omission of ὤν, see cross2117. For εἶναι with verbs of naming and calling, see cross1615.
τὰ_ς γὰρ καλὰ_ς πρά_ξεις ἁπά_σα_ς ἀγαθὰ_ς ὡμολογήσαμεν for we have agreed that all honourable actions are good
Several adjectives of time, place, order of succession, etc., are used as predicates where English employs an adverb or a preposition with its case:
X. A. 5.3.2, κατέβαινον σκοταῖοι they descended in the dark 4. 1. 10. In such cases the adjective is regarded as a quality of the subject; whereas an adverb would regard the manner of the action.
ἀφικνοῦνται τριταῖοι they arrive on the third day
a. Time, place: χρόνιος late, ὄρθριος in the morning, δευτεραῖος on the second day, ποσταῖος how many days? ὑπαίθριος in the open air.
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b. Order of succession: πρῶτος, πρότερος first, ὕστερος later, μέσος in the midst, τελευταῖος last, ὕστατος last.
N.—When one action is opposed to another in order of sequence, the adverbs πρῶτον, πρότερον, ὕστατον, etc., not the adjectives πρῶτος, etc.. must be used:
X. A. 1.3.2. Hence distinguish
πρῶτον μὲν ἐδάκρυ_ε πολὺν χρόνον . . . εἶτα δὲ ἔλεξε τοιάδε first he wept for a long time, then he spoke as follows
|πρῶτος τῇ πόλει προσέβαλε||he was the first to attack the city.|
|πρώτῃ τῇ πόλει προσέβαλε||the city was the first place he attacked.|
|πρῶτον τῇ πόλει προσέβαλε||his first act was to attack the city.|
The same rule applies in the case of μόνος, μόνον, as μόνην τὴν ἐπιστολην ἔγραψα this is the only letter I wrote, μόνον ἔγραψα τὴν ἐπιστολήν I only wrote (but did not send) the letter. But this distinction is not always observed (Aes. 3.69).
So also with adjectives of degree, mental attitude, manner, etc.:
X. A. 4.7.7,
φέρονται οἱ λίθοι πολλοί the stones are thrown in great numbers
τοὺς νεκροὺς ὑποσπόνδους ἀπέδοσαν they restored the dead under a truce
X. C. 1.6.2. So with μέγας high, ἄσμενος gladly, ἑκούσιος, ἑκών willingly, ὅρκιος under oath, αἰφνίδιος suddenly. On ἄλλος, see cross1272.
οἱ θεοὶ εὐμενεῖς πέμπουσί σε the gods send you forth favourably