Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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CLASSES OF RELATIVE CLAUSES 2553

Ordinary Relative Clauses define more exactly a definite antecedent, and show the mood and the negative of simple sentences.

Indicative: ταῦτ' ἐστὶν ἃ ἐγὼ δέομαι this is what I want X. A. 7.2.34, ὦ δύστα_να γένη βροτ ῶν, οἷς μὴ μέτριος αἰών alas, ill-starred races of men, whose destiny is beyond due measure S. Ph. 179, ὅθεν οὖν ῥᾷστα μαθήσεσθε περὶ αὐτῶν, ἐντεῦθεν ὑ_μᾶς καὶ ἐγὼ πρῶτον πειρά_σομαι διδάσκειν I will first try to inform you (lit.) from the source from which you will most easily learn about them D. 27.3, παρ' ἐμὲ ἀφικόμενος οὐ πείσεται ἅπερ ἂν ἔπαθεν ἄλλῳ τῳ συγγενόμενος τῶν σοφιστῶν in coming to me he will not meet with the treatment he would have suffered had he consorted with any other of the sophists P. Pr. 318d.

Subjunctive: Ἄνυτος ὅδε παρεκαθέζετο, ᾧ μεταδῶμεν τῆς ζητήσεως Anytus has taken his seat here (lit.) to whom let us give a share in the investigation P. Men. 80e, κλύων ὁθούνεκα . . . μήτηρ δ' ἐν οἴκοις· ἣν σὺ μὴ δείσῃς hearing that our mother is in the house, (lit.) of whom have thou no fear S. El. 1309.

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Optative: οἴομαι ἂν ἡμᾶς τοιαῦτα παθεῖν, οἷα τοὺς ἐχθροὺς οἱ θεοὶ ποιήσειαν I think we should endure such things as I pray the gods may inflict upon our enemies X. A. 3.2.3, δόρατα ἔχοντες . . . ὅσα ἀνὴρ ἂν φέροι μόλις having spears, such as a man could carry with difficulty 5. 4. 25, ἄρξομαι δ' ἐντεῦθεν ὅθεν . . . ἐγὼ τάχιστ' ἂν διδάξαιμι I will begin at (from) that point where I can most quickly inform you D. 29.5. The potential optative without ἄν is very rare ( cross2552).

Imperative: πλάνην φράσω, ἣν ἐγγράφου σὺ μνήμοσιν δέλτοις φρενῶν I will tell thy wandering, which do thou inscribe in the tablets of thy memory A. Pr. 788. On οἶσθ' δ δρᾶσον, see cross1842 a.

a. Ordinary relative clauses are explanatory, and (in sense) are equivalent to independent coördinated clauses. See cross2490.

b. Homer has κέ or ἄν with the future: παρ' ἐμοί γε καὶ ἄλλοι, οἵ κέ με τι_μήσουσι I have others by my side who will honour me A 175.

2554

Relative Clauses of Purpose (Final Relative Clauses) regularly take the future indicative, even after past tenses (negative μή). The antecedent of final relative clauses is usually indefinite. ὅς is commoner than ὅστις. (The construction with the future participle is more frequent: cross2065).

φημὶ δὴ δεῖν ἡμᾶς . . . πρεσβεία_ν πέμπειν, ἣ τοὺς μὲν διδάξει ταῦτα, τοὺς δὲ παροξυνεῖ I say that we must send an embassy, which will inform some of this and incite others D. 2.11, πέμψον τιν' ὅστις σημανεῖ send some one who will announce E. I. T. 1209, ἔδοξε τῷ δήμῳ τριά_κοντα ἄνδρας ἑλέσθαι, οἳ τοὺς πατρίους νόμους συγγράψουσι, καθ' οὓς πολι_τεύσουσι the people voted to choose thirty men who should codify the ancestral laws by which they were to conduct the government X. H. 2.3.2. So in local clauses: κρύψω τόδ' ἔγχος . . . ἔνθα μή τις ὄψεται I will hide this sword where no one shall see it S. Aj. 659.

a. After a secondary tense the future optative occurs rarely: οἱ δὲ τριά_κοντα ᾑρέθησαν μὲν ἐπεὶ τάχιστα τὰ μακρὰ τείχη . . . καθῃρέθη· αἱρεθέντες δ' ἐφ' ᾧτε ξυγγράψαι νόμους, καθ' οὕστινας πολι_τεύσοιντο κτλ. the thirty were chosen as soon as the long walls were destroyed; and having been chosen for the purpose of codifying the laws, according to which they were to conduct the government, etc. X. H. 2.3.11. In local clauses: S. O. T. 796.

b. A past purpose may be expressed by ἔμελλον and the infinitive. Thus, ναύαρχον προσέταξαν' Αλκίδα_ν, δς ἔμελλεν ἐπιπλεύσεσθαι they appointed Alcidas as admiral who was to sail in command T. 3.16.

c. Homer uses the subjunctive (with κέ, except Γ 287) after primary tenses, the optative after secondary tenses. Thus, μάντις ἐλεύσεται, ὅς κέν τοι ἔπῃσιν ὁδόν a seer will come to tell thee the way κ 538, ἄγγελον ἧκαν δς ἀγγείλειε γυναικί they sent a messenger to tell the woman ο 458. The future also occurs (ξ 332). The present or aorist optative is rare in Attic (S. Tr. 903, Ph. cross281).

2555

Relative Clauses of Cause take the indicative (negative οὐ). ὅς is more common than ὅστις.

θαυμαστὸν ποιεῖς, δς ( = ὅτι σὺ) ἡμῖν . . . οὐδὲν δίδως you do a strange thing in giving us nothing X. M. 2.7.13, Λοξίᾳ δὲ μέμφομαι, ὅστις μ' ἐπά_ρα_ς ἔργον ἀνοσιώτατον τοῖς μὲν λόγοις ηὔφρα_νε κτλ. I blame Loxias, who after inciting me to

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a deed most unhallowed, cheered me with words, etc. E. Or. 285. So when the relative is a dependent exclamation (οἷος ὅτι τοιοῦτος, etc., cross2687).

a. γε is often added to ὅς or ὅστις.

b. μή is used when there is also an idea of characteristic (of such a sort) or condition (perhaps to avoid a harsher form of statement). Cp. cross2705 g.

2556

Relative Clauses of Result (Consecutive Relative Clauses) usually take the indicative (for οἷος, ὅσος with the infinitive see cross2497). The negative is οὐ when the relative clause approximates ὥστε (οὐ) with the indicative, as is generally the case when the main clause is negative, expressed or implied. Here ὅστις is commoner than ὅς. The negative is μή when the relative clause expresses an intended ( cross2557) or anticipated ( cross2558) result, where ὥστε μή with the infinitive would be less precise.

τίς οὕτω μαίνεται ὅστις οὐ βούλεται σοὶ φίλος εἶναι; who is so mad that he does not wish to be a friend to you? X. A. 2.5.12, οὐδὲν γὰρ οὕτω βραχὺ ὅπλον ἑκάτεροι εἶχον ᾧ οὐκ ἐξι_κνοῦντο ἀλλήλων for each side did not have weapons so short that they could not reach each other X. H. 7.5.17.

a. The indicative with ἄν and the optative with ἄν are rare. Thus, τίς δ' ἦν οὕτως . . . μι_σαθήναιος, ὅστις ἐδυνήθη ἂν ἄτακτον αὑτὸν ὑπομεῖναι ἰδεῖν; who was such a hater of Athens that he could endure to see himself not at his post? Lyc. 39, τίς οὕτως ἰσχυ_ρός, δς . . . ῥἱ_γει δύναιτ' ἂν μαχόμενος στρατεύεσθαι who is so vigorous that he could carry on war while battling with cold? X. C. 6.1.15. A potential optative with ὅς follows a potential optative in P. R. 360b.

2557

The indicative is normal in consecutive relative clauses introduced by οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις (οὐ), οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅστις (οὐ), οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως (οὐ), εἰσὶν οἵ, ἔστιν οἷς, etc.

οὐκ ἔστιν οὐδεὶς ὅστις οὐχ αὑτὸν φιλεῖ there is no one who does not love himself Men. Sent. 407, οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως ἥβην κτήσῃ πάλιν αὖθις in no way canst thou regain thy youth E. Heracl. 707. See cross2551.

a. The indicative with ἄν and the optative with ἄν also occur. Thus, οὐ γὰρ ἦν ὅ τι ἂν ἐποιεῖτε for there was nothing that you could have done D. 18.43, ὧν οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις οὐκ ἂν καταφρονήσειεν whom every one would despise I. 8.52.

b. On the subjunctive and optative without ἄν, see cross2546, cross2547, 2552.

2558

The future indicative is often used to express an intended result (negative μή).

ἀνόητον ἐπὶ τοιούτους ἰέναι ὧν κρατήσα_ς μὴ κατασχήσει τις it is senseless to attack men of such a kind that we shall not hold them in subjection if we conquer them T. 6.11, οὗτοι δὲ τοιαῦτ' . . . ὑποσχήσονται, ἐξ ὧν μηδ' ἂν ὁτιοῦν ᾖ κι_νηθήσονται these men shall make promises in consequence of which the Athenians will not better themselves under any circumstances (lit. even if anything occurs) D. 19.324.

2559

The future indicative is especially common when the main clause contains an idea of ability, capacity, or characteristic, and the relative clause denotes what is to be expected of the subject.

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ἱκανοί ἐσμεν . . . ὑ_μῖν πέμψαι ναῦς τε καὶ ἄνδρας οἵτινες συμμαχοῦνταί τε καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν ἡγήσονται (cp. ὥστε συμμάχεσθαι) we are able to send you ships and men who will fight with you and direct your journey X. A. 5.4.10, οὔτε πλοῖα ἔστι τὰ ἀπάξοντα οὔτε σῖτος ᾧ θρεψόμεθα μένοντες we have neither ships to convey us away nor provisions to feed us while we remain 6. 5. 20, δεῖταί τινος ὅστις αὐτὸν ὀνήσει he needs some one to improve him P. Eu. 306d, (ἔδει) ψήφισμα νι_κῆσαι τοιοῦτο δι' οὗ Φωκεῖς ἀπολοῦνται a bill had to be passed of such a character as to destroy the Phocians D. 19.43.

2560

Conditional Relative Clauses may be resolved into if clauses, ὅς (ὅστις) corresponding to εἴ τις and ὅς (ὅστις) ἄν to ἐά_ν τις. The negative is μή.

a. The antecedent of conditional relative clauses is indefinite ( cross2505 b).

b. Such relative clauses, like temporal clauses, correspond in form to the protases of ordinary conditional sentences. Conditional relative sentences show, in general, the same substitutions permitted in the corresponding conditional sentences. δς ἄν is always generic, ἐά_ν may be particular in prose.

2561

The correspondence in construction between the common forms of conditional, temporal, and conditional relative, sentences is shown by the following table:

Present
Simple:εἴ (ὅτε, ὅ) τιἔχειδίδωσι
Unreal:εἴ (ὅτε, ὅ) τιεἶχενἐδίδου ἄν
General:ἐά_ν τι (ὅταν τι, ὅ τι) ἔχῃδίδωσι
Past
Simple:εἴ (ὅτε, ὅ) τιεἶχεν (ἔσχεν) ἐδίδου (ἔδωκε)
Unreal:εἴ (ὅτε, ὅ) τιἔσχεν (εἶχεν) ἔδωκεν (ἐδίδου) ἄν
General:εἴ (ὅτε, ὅ) τιἔχοιἐδίδου
Future
More Vivid:ἐά_ν τι (ὅταν τι, ὅ τι ἂν) ἔχῃδώσει
Less Vivid:εἴ (ὅτε, ὅ) τιἔχοιδιδοίη (δοίη) ἄν

N.—English cannot always, without obscurity, use a relative to translate ὅτε or ὅ τι with an unreal indicative; in such cases when (ever) or whatever are best rendered by if ever. Cp. cross2396.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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