Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Appositives to the antecedent may be drawn into the relative clause as the nearest construction or for the sake of emphasis. Thus, εὑρήσει τοὺς . . . δικαστά_ς, οἵπερ καὶ λέγονται ἐκεῖ δικάζειν, Μί_νως τε καὶ Ῥαδάμανθυς κτλ. he will find the judges, who are said to pronounce judgment there, Minos and Rhadamanthys, etc. P. A. 41a.


A substantive, usually with the article, is often taken over into the relative clause, to explain, by a necessary addition, the idea conveyed by that clause; and stands in the same case as the relative. Thus, εἰ μανθάνεις ὃ βούλομαι λέγειν τὸ εἶδος if you understand the class I wish to describe P. R. 477c, οὔτε αὐτοὶ οὔτε οὕς φαμεν ἡμῖν παιδευτέον εἶναι τοὺς φύλακας neither ourselves nor the guardians whom we say we must instruct 402 c.


The antecedent may be reserved for the main clause, which follows the relative clause. Thus, καθ' οὓς μὲν ἀπήχθην, οὐκ ἔνοχός εἰμι τοῖς νόμοις I am not subject to the laws in virtue of which I was arrested Ant. 5.85.


An attributive adjective, or an attributive genitive belonging to a substantive standing in the main clause, may be placed either in the relative clause (if either is emphatic) or in the main clause. Two adjectives may be divided between the two clauses. The substantives may remain in the main clause or be transferred to the relative clause. Thus, τὸ τείχισμα δ ἦν αὐτόθι τῶν Συρα_κοσίων αἱροῦσι they captured the fort of the Syracusans which was there T. 7.43, ὧν ἐγὼ ἤθελον τούτῳ ταύτην ἥτις εἴη μεγίστη πίστις δοῦναι of which I was willing to offer to the plaintiff the assurance that was most solemn D. 52.12, ἐπιδεῖξαι . . . τὴν δικαία_ν ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀπολογία_ to show what the fair line of defence is 19. 203, ἔφρι_ξεν δὲ μάχη . . . ἐγχείῃσιν μακρῇς, ἃ_ς εἶχον ταμεσίχροας and the battle bristled with the long spears, the flesh-piercing spears, which they grasped N 339.

a. From the transference of superlatives to the relative clause arise such expressions as ἤγαγον συμμάχους ὁπόσους πλείστους ἐδυνάμην ( cross1087). Similarly ὡς τάχιστα (scil. δύνασαι or the like) as soon as, as soon as possible, ἐπεὶ (ὅτε) τάχιστα as soon as.


A participial or subordinate clause depending on a following main clause may be joined to a preceding clause containing the antecedent of the relative. Thus, ἔφη εἶναι ἄκρον δ εἰ μή τις προκαταλήψοιτο, ἀδύνατον ἔσεσθαι παρελθεῖν he said that there was a height which would be impossible to pass, unless it was seized in advance X. A. 4.1.25. The case of the relative may be not that required by its own verb, but that of an omitted pronoun dependent on a participle or a subordinate verb inserted in the relative clause. Thus, καταλαμβάνουσι τεῖχος . . . ὅ ποτε Ἀκαρνᾶνες τειχισάμενοι κοινῷ δικαστηρίῳ ἐχρῶντο (for ᾧ ἐχρῶντο τειχισάμενοι αὐτό) they seized a fortress which the Acarnanians once built and used as a common place of judgment T. 3.105.


When the relative clause contains a verb of naming, the main clause is fused with the relative clause. Thus, ἔνθα καλεῖται Ἀρτέμιδος τέμενος (for ἔνθα τέμενός ἐστι, δ καλεῖται Ἀρτέμιδος) where there is a precinct of Artemis Simonides 107.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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