Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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If the leading verb denotes a repeated or customary action or a general truth, a temporal clause takes the subjunctive with ἄν after primary tenses, the optative after secondary tenses. The negative is μή. Cp. cross2336.

a. A present tense denotes action continuing (not completed) and is of the same time as that of the leading verb; an aorist tense denotes action simply occurring (completed) and time usually antecedent to that of the leading verb when the action of the dependent clause takes place before the action of the main clause. In clauses of contemporaneous action the aorist denotes the same time as that of the main verb; in clauses of subsequent action, time later than that of the main verb.

b. ὡς is rare in these temporal clauses (Hdt. 1.17, 4. 172; ὅκως with the optative occurs in 1. 17, 1. cross68).

c. On Homeric similes with ὡς ὅτε, ὡς ὁπότε, see cross2486.


In temporal sentences of indefinite frequency the temporal clause has the subjunctive with ἄν when the principal clause has the present indicative, or any other tense denoting a present customary or repeated action or a general truth. Cp. cross2337.

μαινόμεθα πάντες ὁπόταν ὀργιζώμεθα we are all mad whenever we are angry Philemon 184, φωνή τις, ἥ, ὅταν γένηται, ἀεὶ ἀποτρέπει με a kind of voice which,

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whenever it comes, always deters me P. A. 31d, ὅταν σπεύδῃ τις αὐτός, χὡ θεὸς συνάπτεται whenever a man is eager himself, God too works with him A. Pers. 742, ἕως ἂν σῴζηται τὸ σκάφος . . ., χρὴ καὶ ναύτην καὶ κυβερνήτην . . . προθύ_μους εἶναι . . ., ἐπειδὰν δ' ἡ θάλαττα ὑπέρσχῃ, μάταιος ἡ σπουδή as long as the vessel remains in safety, both sailor and pilot should exert themselves; but when the sea has overwhelmed it, their efforts are fruitless D. 9.69, ποιοῦμεν ταῦθ' ἑκάστοθ' . . . ἕως ἂν αὐτὸν ἐμβάλωμεν ἐς κακόν we do this on each occasion until we plunge him into misfortune Ar. Nub. 1458.


The verb of the main clause may stand in the participle, or in other tenses than the present indicative: καίπερ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἐν ᾧ μὲν ἂν πολεμῶσι, τὸν παρόντα (πόλεμον) ἀεὶ μέγιστον κρι_νόντων although men always consider the present war the greatest so long as they are engaged in it T. 1.21, ὅταν δ' ἑτέρῳ ταῦτα παραδῷ, καταλέλυκε τὴν αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ δυναστεία_ν but whenever he surrenders these rights to another, he destroys once and for all his own sovereignty Aes. 3.233, πολέμιοι . . . ἤδη ὅταν . . . καταδουλώσωνταί τινας, πολλοὺς δὴ βελτί_ους ἠνάγκασαν εἶναι enemies ere now have forced improvement upon those whom they have enslaved X. O. 1.23 (cp. cross2338), πολλάκις ἐθαύμασα τῆς τόλμης τῶν λεγόντων ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ, πλὴν ὅταν ἐνθυ_μηθῶ κτλ. I have often marvelled at the effrontery of the speakers in his behalf, except when (ever) I consider, etc. L. 12.41.


ἄν (κέ) is frequently omitted in Homer, and occasionally in lyric and dramatic poetry and in Herodotus, e.g. ἐπεὶ δ' ἁμάρτῃ, κεῖνος οὐκέτ' ἔστ' ἀνὴρ ἄβουλος but whenever a man commits an error, that man is no longer heedless S. Ant. 1025.


The present indicative is very rarely used instead of the subjunctive with ἄν in temporal clauses of indefinite frequency. Thus, περὶ τῶν ἄλλων τῶν ἀδικούντων, ὅτε (ὅτου conj.) δικάζονται, δεῖ παρὰ τῶν κατηγόρων πυθέσθαι with regard to other malefactors, one has to learn during their trial (lit. when they are tried) from the accusers L. 22.22. Cp. cross2342.


In temporal sentences of indefinite frequency the temporal clause has the optative when the principal clause has the imperfect or any other tense denoting a past customary or repeated action.

ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου ὁπότε γυμνάσαι βούλοιτο ἑαυτόν he was wont to hunt on horseback, whenever he wanted to exercise himself X. A. 1.2.7, ὁπότε ὥρα_ εἴη ἀ_ρίστου, ἀνέμενεν αὐτοὺς ἔστε ἐμφάγοιέν τι whenever it was breakfast time, he used to wait until they had eaten something X. C. 8.1.44, περιεμένομεν ἑκάστοτε ἕως ἀνοιχθείη τὸ δεσμωτήριον· ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἀνοιχθείη, εἰσῇμεν we used to wait about on each occasion until the prison was opened; but when (ever) it was opened, we used to go in P. Ph. 59d. Observe that ἀνοιχθείη marks a repeated past action (until it was regularly opened) and represents the thought of the subject (until it should be opened, cf. 2420; i.e. direct = ἕως ἂν ἀνοιχθῇ).


The optative is rare after a primary tense, and occurs only when that tense includes a reference to the past (ω 254; cp. cross2573).—ὅτε κεν with the optative occurs once (I cross525).


Other tenses than the imperfect in the principal clause: ἀλλ' ὅτε δὴ . . .

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ἀνα_ΐξειεν Ὀδυσσεύς, στάσκεν, ὑπαὶ δὲ ἴδεσκε κτλ. (cp. cross495) but whenever Odysseus arose, he always kept his position and looked down T 215, ὁπότε προσβλέψειέ τινας τῶν ἐν ταῖς τάξεσιν, εἶπεν ἄν κτλ. whenever he looked toward any of the men in the ranks, he would say, etc. X. C. 7.1.10. Cp. cross2341.


The indicative (cp. cross2342) is rare in temporal clauses of past indefinite frequency, as καὶ ᾖδον καὶ ἐχόρευον ὁπότε οἱ πολέμιοι αὐτοὺς ὄψεσθαι ἔμελλον they both sang and danced whenever the enemy were likely to look at them X. A. 4.7.16. So with ὁσάκις referring to particular events of repeated occurrence, as ὁσάκις κεχορήγηκε . . . νενί_κηκε as often as he has been choregus, he has gained a victory X. M. 3.4.3.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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