Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].

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2383

Temporal clauses are introduced by conjunctions or relative expressions having the force of conjunctions

A. Denoting time usually the same as that of the principal verb:

ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἡνίκα, ὁπηνίκα when; ὁσάκις as often as; ἕως, μέχρι (rarely ἄχρι), ὅσον χρόνον so long as; ἕως, ἐν ᾧ (rarely ἐν ὅσῳ and ἔστε) while.

N. 1.—ἕως means so long as in reference to actions that are coëxtensive; while, in reference to actions not coëxtensive.

N. 2.—ἡνίκα, ὁπηνίκα have the force of what time, at the moment when, when, (rarely while), and are more precise than ὅτε.

N. 3.—Poetic or Ionic are εὖτε (= ὅτε) when, ἦμος (only with the indicative) when, ὅπως when (ὅκως in Hdt. of antecedent action), ὄφρα so long as. Hom. has εἷος (i.e. ἧος) or εἵως for ἕως.

N. 4.—ἔστε is used (rarely) in lyric, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Xenophon.

B. Denoting time usually prior to that of the principal verb:

ἐπεί, ἐπειδή after, after that (less exactly when); ἐπεὶ πρῶτον, ὡς (or ἐπεὶ) τάχιστα, ἐπειδὴ τάχιστα (rarely ὅπως τάχιστα) as soon as; ἐξ οὗ (rarely ἐξ ὧν), ἐξ ὅτου, ἀφ' οὗ since, ever since; ὡς when, as soon as, since.

N.—ἐπείτε after is very common in Herodotus.

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C. Denoting time subsequent to that of the principal verb:

ἕως, ἔστε, μέχρι, μέχρι οὗ (rarely ἄχρι), ἄχρι οὗ until: followed by a finite verb.

πρίν, πρότερον ἤ before, until: followed by a finite verb or by an infinitive.

N.—Homer has also ὄφρα (also final), εἰς ὅτε (κε), εἰς ὅ (κε). Herodotus has ἐς ὅ, ἕως οὗ, ἐς οὗ until. ὁππότε with the optative in Homer after a past tense of a verb of waiting or expecting means for the time when (H cross414). ἔστε (first in Hesiod) is rare in lyric, tragedy, Herodotus, and Plato, very common in Xenophon.—μέχρι is avoided by the orators.—μέχρι and ἄχρι take the articular infinitive in Demosthenes.—τέως for ἕως is rare ( cross2171).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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