Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Previous SubSect

Next SubSect

TWO OR MORE PROTASES OR APODOSES IN ONE SENTENCE 2366

A conditional sentence may have several protases and one apodosis or one protasis and several apodoses. Two such protases or apodoses are coördinate or one of the two is subordinate to the other.

2367

Two coördinated protases with a single apodosis, or two coördinated apodoses with a single protasis, may refer to the same time or to different times.

εἰ δὲ μήτ' ἔστι (τι βέλτι_ον) μήτ' ἦν μήτ' ἂν εἰπεῖν ἔχοι μηδεὶς μηδέπω καὶ τήμερον, τί τὸν σύμβουλον ἐχρῆν ποιεῖν; but if there neither is nor was any better plan, and if yet even to-day no one can suggest any, what was it the duty of the statesman to do? D. 18.190, καὶ γὰρ ἂν καὶ ὑπερφυὲς εἴη, εἰ κατὰ μὲν τῶν Ὀλυνθίους προδόντων πολλὰ καὶ δείν' ἐψηφίσασθε, τοὺς δὲ παρ' ὑ_μῖν αὐτοῖς ἀδικοῦντας μὴ κολάζοντες φαίνοισθε and in fact it would be actually monstrous if, whereas you have passed many severe votes against the betrayers of the Olynthians, you appear not to punish the wrongdoers in your midst D. 19.267, εἰ ἐγὼ ἐπεχείρησα πρά_ττειν τὰ πολι_τικὰ πρά_γματα, πάλαι ἂν ἀπολώλη καὶ οὔτ' ἂν ὑ_μᾶς ὠφελήκη οὐδὲν οὔτ' ἂν ἐμαυτόν if I had tried to engage in politics, I should have long ago perished and benefited neither you nor myself at all P. A. 31d.

2368

When two or more protases are not coördinated in the same sentence, one is of chief importance and any other protasis is subordinate to it. Such protases may follow each other or one may be added after the apodosis; and may show the same or a different modal form.

ἀξιοῦμεν, εἰ μέν τινα ὁρᾶτε σωτηρία_ν ἡμῖν (ἐσομένην), ἐὰ_ν διακαρτερῶμεν πολεμοῦντες, διδάξαι καὶ ἡμᾶς κτλ. if you see any safety for us if we persist in making war, we beg that you will inform us too what it is X. H. 7.4.8 (here ἐὰ_ν διακαρτερῶμεν

-- 537 --

depends on εἰ ὁρᾶτε); ἐὰ_ν δὲ ἡδέα πρὸς λυ_πηρά (ἱστῇς), ἐὰ_ν μὲν τὰ ἀνια_ρὰ ὑπερβάλληται ὑπὸ τῶν ἡδέων, ἐά_ν τε τὰ ἐγγὺς ὑπὸ τῶν πόρρω ἐά_ν τε τὰ πόρρω ὑπὸ τῶν ἐγγύς, ταύτην τὴν πρᾶξιν πρα_κτέον ἐν ᾗ ἂν ταῦτ' ἐνῇ· ἐὰ_ν δὲ τὰ ἡδέα ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνια_ρῶν, οὐ πρα_κτέα but if you weight pleasures against pains, if on the one hand what is painful is exceeded by what is pleasurable (whether the near by the distant or the distant by the near), you must adopt that course of action in which this is the case; if on the other hand the pleasurable (is exceeded) by the painful, the former must not be adopted P. Pr. 356b (here to ἐὰ_ν ἡδέα ἱστῇς are subordinated ἐὰ_ν μέν and ἐὰ_ν δέ, and to ἐὰ_ν μέν are subordinated ἐά_ν τε . . . ἐά_ν τε); εἰ δέ σε ἠρόμην ἐξ ἀρχῆς τί ἐστι καλόν τε καὶ αἰσχρόν, εἴ μοι ἅπερ νῦν ἀπεκρί_νω, ἆρ' οὐκ ἂν ὀρθῶς ἀπεκέκρισο; but if I had asked you at the start what beauty and ugliness is—if you had answered me as you have now done, would you not have answered me rightly? P. Hipp. M. 289c; ἢν μὲν πόλεμον αἱρῆσθε, μηκέτι ἥκετε δεῦρο ἄνευ ὅπλων, εἰ σωφρονεῖτε if you choose war, come no more hither without arms if you are wise X. C. 3.2.13, εἰ μετὰ Θηβαίων ἡμῖν ἀγωνιζομένοις οὕτως εἵμαρτο πρᾶξαι, τί χρῆν προσδοκᾶν εἰ μηδὲ τούτους ἔσχομεν συμμάχους ἀλλὰ Φιλίππῳ προσέθεντο; if it was decreed by fate that we should fare thus with the Thebans fighting on our side, what ought we to have expected if we had not even secured them as allies but they had joined Philip? D. 18.195.

a. A second protasis may be added to the first protasis to explain or define it. Thus, καὶ οὐ τοῦτο λέξων ἔρχομαι ὡς πολὺ μὲν ἐλά_ττους πολὺ δὲ χείρονας ἔχων ὅμως συνέβαλεν· εἰ γὰρ ταῦτα λέγοιμι, Ἀ_γησίλα_όν τ' ἄν μοι δοκῶ ἄφρονα ἀποφαίνειν καὶ ἐμαυτὸν μῶρον, εἰ ἐπαινοίην τὸν περὶ τῶν μεγίστων εἰκῇ κινδυ_νεύοντα and I am not going to say that he made the engagement in spite of having much fewer and inferior troops; for if I should maintain this, I think that I should be proving Agesilaus senseless and myself a fool, if I should praise the man who rashly incurs danger when the greatest interests are at stake X. Ag. 2. 7.

Previous SubSect

Next SubSect


Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Powered by PhiloLogic