Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2344

Substitutions for the Protasis.—For the protasis with εἰ there may be substituted a participle, often in the genitive absolute ( cross2067, cross2070), an adverb, a prepositional phrase, a relative clause ( cross2560), or some other single word or phrase. The present participle represents the imperfect, as the perfect represents the pluperfect.

πῶς δῆτα δίκης οὔσης (= εἰ δίκη ἐστίν) ὁ Ζεὺς οὐκ ἀπόλωλεν τὸν πατέρ' αὑτοῦ δήσα_ς; how, pray, if there is any justice, has Zeus not perished since he bound his own father? Ar. Nub. 904, οὐ γὰρ ἦν μοι δήπου βιωτὸν τοῦτο ποιήσαντα (= εἰ ἐποίησα) for of course life had not been worth living if I had done this D. 21.120, οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐβλήθη ἀτρεμίζων καὶ μὴ διατρέχων (= εἰ ἠτρέμιζε καὶ μὴ διέτρεχε) for he would not have been hit if he had been keeping quiet and not running acrossAnt. 3. β. 5, δικαίως ἂν ἀπέθανον I should justly (i.e. if I had met with my deserts) have been put to death D. 18.209, ἐμοὶ δὲ ἀρκοῦν ἂν ἐδόκει εἶναι for myself (i.e. if I had to decide) it would seem to be sufficient T. 2.35, διά γε ὑ_μᾶς αὐτοὺς (= εἰ ὑ_μεῖς αὐτοὶ μόνοι ἦτε) πάλαι ἂν ἀπολώλειτε if you had been left to yourselves, you would have perished long ago D. 18.49, ὀλοῦμαι μὴ μαθών (= ἐὰ_ν μὴ μάθω) I shall be undone if I don't learn Ar. Nub. 792, νι_κῶντες (= εἰ νι_κῷεν) μὲν οὐδένα ἂν κατακάνοιεν, ἡττηθέντων (= εἰ ἡττηθεῖεν) οὐδεὶς ἂν λειφθείη should they be victorious they would kill no one, but if defeated no one would be left X. A. 3.1.2, οὕτω (= εἰ οὕτως ἔχοιεν) γὰρ πρὸς τὸ ἐπιέναι τοῖς ἐναντίοις εὐψυ_χότατοι ἂν εἶεν for thus they would be most courageous in regard to attacking the enemy T. 2.11, οὐδ' ἂν δικαίως ἐς κακὸν πέσοιμί τι nor should I justly come to any trouble S. Ant. 240.

a. Sometimes the protasis has to be supplied from what precedes (example in cross1825); or from a main clause with ἀλλά, which follows: οὐδέ κεν αὐτὸς ὑπέκφυγε κῆρα μέλαιναν· ἀλλ' Ἥφαιστος ἔρυτο (= εἰ μὴ ἔρυτο) nor would he himself have escaped black fate; but Hephaestus guarded him E 23 (cp. X. A. 3.2.24- cross25).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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