Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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ὥστε (ὡς) WITH A FINITE VERB 2273

Any form used in simple sentences may follow ὥστε (rarely ὡς) with a finite verb. ὥστε has no effect on the mood of a finite verb.

a. ὡς is found especially in Xenophon.


ὥστε so that with the indicative states the actual result of the action of the leading verb. This is especially common in narrative statements with the aorist tense. The negative is οὐ.

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ἐπιπί_πτει χιὼν ἄπλετος ὥστε ἀπέκρυψε κα τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους an immense amount of snow fell so that it buried both the arms and the men X. A. 4.4.11, εἰς τοσοῦτον ὕβρεως ἦλθον ὥστ' ἔπεισαν ὑ_μᾶς ἐλαύνειν αὐτόν they reached such a pitch of insolence that they persuaded you to expel him I. 16.9 (cp. cross2258 a), οὕτω σκαιὸς εἶ . . . ὥστ' ου' δύνασαι κτλ. are you so stupid that you are not able, etc. D. 18.120 (of a definite fact; with μὴ δύνασθαι the meaning would be so stupid as not to be able, expressing a characteristic). So after the locution τοσούτου δέω, as τοσούτου δέω περὶ τῶν μὴ προσηκόντων ἱκανὸς εἶναι λέγειν, ὥστε δέδοικα κτλ. I am so far from able to speak about that which does not refer to my case that I fear, etc. L. 17.1. ὡς is very rare: νομίζω οὕτως ἔχειν ὡς ἀποστήσονται αὐτοῦ αἱ πόλεις I consider that it is the case that the cities will revolt from him X. H. 6.1.14.

a. So when ὥστε introducing an independent sentence practically has the force of οὖν, τοίνυν, τοιγαροῦν and so therefore, consequently. Thus καὶ εἰς μὲν τὴν ὑστεραία_ν οὐχ ἧκεν· ὥσθ' οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐφρόντιζον and on the next day he did not come; consequently the Greeks were anxious X. A. 2.3.25. Cp. cross2275. This use appears sometimes with the infinitive: ὥστ' ἐμὲ ἐμαυτὸν ἀνερωτᾶν and so I kept asking myself P. A. 22e.


With an imperative, a hortatory or prohibitory subjunctive, or an interrogative verb, a clause with ὥστε is coördinate rather than subordinate, and ὥστε has the force of καὶ οὕτως.

ὥστε θάρρει and so be not afraid X. C. 1.3.18, ὥστε . . . μὴ θαυμάσῃς and so do not wonder P. Phae. 274a, ὥστε πόθεν ἴσα_σιν; and so how do they know? D. 29.47.


ὥστε (ὡς) occurs rarely with the participle (instead of the infinitive) by attraction to a preceding participle (And. 4.20, X. C. 7.5.46, D. 10.40, 58. cross23).


ὥστε (ὡς) may be used with a past tense of the indicative with ἄν (potential indicative and unreal indicative).

τοιοῦτόν τι ἐποίησεν ὡς πᾶς ἂν ἔγνω ὅτι ἀσμένη ἤκουσε she made a movement so that every one could recognize that she heard the music with pleasure X. S. 9. 3, κατεφαίνετο πάντα αὐτόθεν ὥστε οὐκ ἂν ἔλαθεν αὐτὸν ὁρμώμενος ὁ Κλέων τῷ στρατῷ everything was clearly visible from it, so that Cleon could not have escaped his notice in setting out with his force T. 5.6.


ὥστε (ὡς) is used rarely with the optative without ἄν (by assimilation to a preceding optative) and with the potential optative with ἄν.

εἴ τις τὴν γυναῖκα τὴν σὴν οὕτω θεραπεύσειεν ὥστε φιλεῖν αὐτὴν μᾶλλον ποιήσειεν ἑαυτὸν ἢ σέ κτλ. if some one should pay such attention to your wife as to make her love him better than yourself X. C. 5.5.30 (cp. cross2266), τοσούτου δεῖς ἐλέου τινὸς ἄξιος εἶναι ὥστε μι_σηθείης ἂν δικαιότατ' ἀνθρώπων you are so far unworthy of compassion that you would be detested most justly of all men D. 37.49, ὡς ἄν X. Ag. 6. 7, X. C. 7.5.37, 7. 5. 81.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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