Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Previous SubSect

Next SubSect

ὥστε (RARELY ὡς) WITH THE INFINITIVE 2260

The infinitive with ὥστε denotes an anticipated or possible result; but the actual occurrence of the result is not stated, and is to be inferred only. The negative is μή, but οὐ is used when the ὥστε clause depends on a clause itself subordinate to a verb of saying or thinking ( cross2269). Cp. cross2759.

-- 508 --

a. ὥστε with the infinitive means as to, so as to; but with a subject necessary in English it must often be translated by so that.

2261

The infinitive with ὥστε is usually present or aorist, rarely perfect (e.g. D. 18.257). The future is common only in indirect discourse (D. 19.72).

2262

ὥστε (ὡς) with the infinitive is used when its clause serves only to explain the principal clause. Thus,

2263

(I) After expressions denoting ability, capacity , or to effect something.

πολλὰ πρά_γματα παρεῖχον οἱ βάρβαροι . . . ἐλαφροὶ γὰρ ἦσαν, ὥστε καὶ ἐγγύθεν φεύγοντες ἀποφεύγειν the barbarians caused great annoyance; for they were so nimble that they could escape even though they made off after they had approached quite near X. A. 4.2.27, ὁ ποταμὸς τοσοῦτος βάθος ὡς μηδὲ τὰ δόρατα ὑπερέχειν the river of such a depth that the spears could not even project above the surface 3. 5. 7 (on τοσοῦτος ὅσος etc. see cross2003), τοσαύτην κραυγὴν . . . ἐποίησαν ὥστε . . . τοὺς ταξιάρχους ἐλθεῖν they made such an uproar as to bring the taxiarchs D. 54.5.

a. The idea of effecting may be unexpressed: (Κλέαρχος) ἤλαυνεν ἐπὶ τοὺς Μένωνος ὥστ' ἐκείνους ἐκπεπλῆχθαι Clearchus advanced against the soldiers of Menon so (i.e. by so doing he brought it about) that they were thoroughly frightened X. A. 1.5.13; cp. cross2267. Several verbs of effecting take ὥστε when the result is intended and where the simple infinitive is common ( cross2267 b).

2264

(II) After a comparative with than.

ᾔσθοντο αὐτὸν ἐλά_ττω ἔχοντα δύναμιν ἢ ὥστε τοὺς φίλους ὠφελεῖν they perceived that he possessed too little power to benefit his friends X. H. 4.8.23, οἱ ἀκοντισταὶ βραχύτερα ἠκόντιζον ἢ ὡς ἐξικνεῖσθαι τῶν σφενδονητ ῶν the javelin throwers hurled their javelins too short a distance to reach the slingers X. A. 3.3.7. After a comparative, ὡς is as common as ὥστε.

a. ὥστε may here be omitted: κρείσσον' ἢ φέρειν κακά evils too great to be endured E. Hec. 1107.

b. On positive adjectives with a comparative force, see cross1063.

2265

(III) After a principal clause that is negatived.

οὐκ ἔχομεν ἀργύριον ὥστε ἀγοράζειν τὰ ἐπιτήδεια we have no money (so as) to buy provisions X. A. 7.3.5, οὐδεὶς πώποτ' εἰς τοσοῦτ' ἀναιδεία_ς ἀφί_κετο ὥστε τοιοῦτόν τι τολμῆσαι ποιεῖν no one ever reached such a degree of shamelessness as to dare to do anything of the sort D. 21.62 (cp. cross2258 a). Here are included questions expecting the answer no: τίς οὕτως ἐστὶ δεινὸς λέγειν ὥστε σε πεῖσαι; who is so eloquent as to persuade you? X. A. 2.5.15. After negative (as after comparative, cross2264) clauses, the infinitive is used, since there would be no reason for the ὥστε clause if the action of the principal clause did not take place. But the indicative occurs occasionally (L. 13.18, Ant. 5.43).

2266

(IV) After a principal clause that expresses a condition.

εἰ μὴ εἰς τοῦτο μανία_ς ἀφι_κόμην ὥστε ἐπιθυ_μεῖν . . . πολλοῖς μάχεσθαι if I had not reached such a degree of madness as to desire to contend with many L. 3.29 (cp. cross2258 a).

-- 509 --

2267

(V) To express an intended result, especially after a verb of effecting, as ποιῶ, διαπρά_ττομαι, etc.

πᾶν ποιοῦσιν ὥστε δίκην μὴ διδόναι they use every effort (so as) to avoid being punished P. G. 479c, διφθέρα_ς . . . συνέσπων ὡς μὴ ἅπτεσθαι τῆς κάρφης τὸ ὕδωρ they stitched the skins so that the water should not touch the hay X. A. 1.5.10.

a. The infinitive here expresses only the result, while the idea of purpose comes only from the general sense and especially from the meaning of the leading verb. ἵνα μή in the above examples would express only purpose.

b. A clause of intended result is often used where ὅπως might occur in an object clause after a verb of effort ( cross2211); as μηχανὰ_ς εὑρήσομεν ὥστ' ἐς τὸ πᾶν σε τῶνδ' ἀπαλλάξαι πόνων we will find means (so as) to free thee entirely from these troubles A. Eum. 82. The infinitive alone, denoting purpose, is here more usual.

2268

(VI) To state a condition or a proviso (on condition that, provided that).

πολλὰ μὲν ἂν χρήματ' ἔδωκε Φιλιστίδης ὥστ' ἔχειν Ὠρεόν Philistides would have given a large sum on condition of his holding Oreus D. 18.81, ὑπι_σχνοῦντο ὥστε ἐκπλεῖν they gave their promise on the condition that they should sail out X. A. 5.6.26. On condition that is commonly expressed by ἐφ' ᾧ or ἐφ' ᾧτε ( cross2279) with or without a preceding ἐπὶ τούτῳ.

2269

A result clause with ὥστε and the indicative, dependent on an infinitive in indirect discourse, and itself quoted, takes the infinitive, and usually retains the negative of the direct form.

ἔφασαν τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς εἰς τοῦτο τρυφῆς ἐλθεῖν ὥστ' οὐκ ἐθέλειν πἱ_νειν, εἰ μὴ ἀνθοσμία_ς εἴη they said that the soldiers reached such a degree of daintiness as to be unwilling to drink wine unless it had a strong bouquet X. H. 6.2.6 (direct: ὥστε οὐκ ἤθελον πἱ_νειν, with οὐ retained in indirect discourse). See also cross2270 b.

So even when the principal verb takes ὅτι, as ἐννοησάτω ὅτι οὕτως ἤδη τότε πόρρω τῆς ἡλικία_ς ἦν ὥστ' . . . οὐκ ἂν πολλῷ ὕστερον τελευτῆσαι τὸν βίον let him consider that he was then so far advanced in years that he would have died soon afterwards X. M. 4.8.1.

a. The future infinitive here represents the future indicative: οἴεται ὑ_μᾶς εἰς τοσοῦτον εὐηθεία_ς ἤδη προβεβηκέναι ὥστε καὶ ταῦτα ἀναπεισθήσεσθαι he thinks that you have already reached such a degree of simplicity as to allow yourselves to be persuaded even of this Aes. 3.256. Outside of indirect discourse, the future infinitive with ὥστε is rare (γενήσεσθαι D. 16.4, εἴσεσθαι D. 29.5).

b. ὥστε with the optative in indirect discourse is very rare (X. H. 3.5.23, I. 17.11).

2270

ἄν with the infinitive expressing possibility, and representing either a potential indicative or a potential optative, occasionally follows ὥστε (ὡς).

a. Not in indirect discourse: καί μοι οἱ θεοὶ οὕτως ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς ἐσήμηναν ὥστε καὶ ἰδιώτην ἂν γνῶναι (= ἰδιώτης ἔγνω ἄν or γνοίη ἄν) ὅτι τῆς μοναρχία_ς ἀπέχεσθαί με δεῖ and the gods declared to me so clearly in the sacrifices that even a common man could understand that I must keep aloof from sovereignty X. A. 6.1.31, ἐν τῷ

-- 510 --

ἀσφαλεῖ ἤδη ἔσομαι ὡς μηδὲν ἂν ἔτι κακὸν παθεῖν ( = οὐδὲν ἂν ἔτι πάθοιμι) I shall soon be safe from suffering any further evil X. C. 8.7.27. The difference in meaning is very slight between the construction with the potential optative and that with the infinitive with ἄν representing the potential optative.

N.—Rarely in other cases. Thus, τὰ δὲ ἐντὸς οὕτως ἐκαίετο ὥστε . . . ἥδιστα ἂν ἐς ὕδωρ ψυ_χρὸν σφᾶς αὐτοὺς ῥί_πτειν ( = ἔρρι_πτον, cross2304) but their internal parts were inflamed to such a degree that they would have been most glad to throw themselves into cold water (had they been permitted) T. 2.49.

b. In indirect discourse: ἆρ' οὖν δοκεῖ τῳ ὑ_μῶν ὀλιγώρως οὕτως ἔχειν χρημάτων Νι_κόδημος ὥστε παραλιπεῖν ( = παρέλιπεν) ἄν τι τῶν τοιούτων; does it seem to any one of you that Nicodemus so despised money that he would have neglected any agreement of the sort? Is. 3.37.

2271

ὥστε is often used with the infinitive when the infinitive without ὥστε is regular or more common.

a. So with many verbs, especially of will or desire. Thus, ἔπεισαν τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ὥστε ἐξαγαγεῖν ἐκ Πύλου Μεσσηνίους they prevailed upon the Athenians (so as) to withdraw the Messenians from Pylus T. 5.35, δεηθέντες . . . ἑκάστων ἰδίᾳ ὥστε ψηφίσασθαι τὸν πόλεμον having begged each privately (so as) to vote for the war 1. 119, ἐποίησα ὥστε δόξαι τούτῳ τοῦ πρὸς ἐμὲ πολέμου παύσασθαι I brought it about so that it seemed best to him to desist from warring against me X. A. 1.6.6.

N.—Such verbs are: ἀπέχομαι, δέομαι ask, διαπρά_ττομαι, διδάσκω, δικαιῶ, δύναμαι, ἐθέλω, εἴργω, ἐλπίδα τινὰ ἔχω, ἐπαγγέλλομαι, ἐπαίρω, ἔχω am able, θέσφατόν τί τινι ἱκνεῖται, a phrase with καθίσταμαι, ξυγχωρῶ, παραδίδωμι, πείθω (and παρασκευάζω πείθω), πέφυ_κα, ποιῶ, προθυ_μοῦμαι, προτρέπομαι, φυλάττομαι ( cross2239), ψηφίζομαι.

b. When the infinitive is the subject: πάνυ γάρ μοι ἐμέλησεν ὥστε εἰδέναι for it concerned me exceedingly to know X. C. 6.3.19.

N.—So with ἔστι, γίγνεται, etc., δόξαν when it was decreed, συνέβη (Thuc.), συνέπι_πτε, συνήνεικε (Hdt.), προσήκει. Cp. cross1985.

c. With adjectives, especially such as are positive in form but have a comparative force and denote a deficiency or the like ( cross1063); as ἡμεῖς γὰρ ἔτι νέοι ὥστε τοσοῦτον πρᾶγμα διελέσθαι for we are still too young to decide so important a matter P. Pr. 314b. So with ἰδιώτης, ὀλίγος, ψυ_χρός, γέρων; and with ἱκανός, ἀδύνατος (and with δύνασθαι).

2272

On the absolute infinitive with ὡς (less often with ὥστε) see cross2012.

Previous SubSect

Next SubSect


Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Powered by PhiloLogic