Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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A clause of result denotes a consequence of what is stated in the principal clause.


Result clauses are introduced by the relative word ὥστε (rarely by ὡς) as, that, so that. In the principal clause the demonstrative words οὕτως thus, τοιοῦτος such, τοσοῦτος so great, are often expressed. ὥστε is from ὡς and the connective τέ, which has lost its meaning.

a. To a clause with οὕτως, etc. Herodotus sometimes adds a clause either with τέ or without a connective, where Attic would employ ὥστε; cp. cross3. 12.


There are two main forms of result clauses: ὥστε with the infinitive and ὥστε with a finite verb. With the infinitive, the negative is generally μή; with a finite verb, οὐ. On the use in indirect discourse and on irregularities, see cross2759.


Consecutive ὡς occurs almost always with the infinitive (chiefly in Herodotus, Xenophon, Aeschylus, and Sophocles); with a finite verb occasionally in Herodotus and Xenophon. With the infinitive, the orators and Thucydides (except 7. cross34) have ὥστε.


Consecutive ὥστε (ὡς) with a finite verb does not occur in Homer, who uses coördination instead (cp. δέ in A cross10). Two cases of ὥς τε occur with the infinitive (I 42; ζ 21 may mean and so), where the infinitive might stand alone, since Homer uses the infinitive to denote an intended or possible result.


A clause with ὥστε and the infinitive is merely added to the clause containing the main thought in order to explain it. The consequence is stated without any distinction of time and only with difference of stage of action.

a. Since the infinitive expresses merely the abstract verbal idea, its use with ὥστε (as with πρίν) outside of indirect discourse cannot explicitly denote a fact. By its datival nature ( cross1969), the infinitive is simply a complement to, or explanation of, the governing word. ὥστε is one of the means to reinforce this explanatory office of the infinitive. The origin of its use is suggested by the comparison with ὅσος sufficient for, οἷος capable of ( cross2003) and the infinitive, which was not originally dependent on these words.


A clause with ὥστε and a finite verb contains the main thought, and is often so loosely connected with the leading verb as to be practically independent and coördinate. ὥστε may thus be simply introductory and take any construction found in an independent sentence. The consequence expresses distinctions of time and stage of action.


Result may also be expressed by relative clauses ( cross2556).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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