Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Previous Sub2Sect

Next Sub2Sect

1000

Plural.—The plural of proper names, of materials, and of abstracts is used to denote a class. (1) of proper names: Θησέες men like Theseus P. Th. 169b. (2) of materials: here the plural denotes the parts, the different kinds of a thing, a mass, etc.: τόξα bow Hdt. 3.78, πυ_ροί, κρι_θαί wheat, barley X. A. 4.5.26, οἶνοι wines 4. 4. 9, κρέα_ meat Ar. Ran. 553 (κρέας piece of meat), ἥλιοι hot days T. 7.87, ξύλα timber T. 7.25. (3) of abstracts: here the plural refers to the single kinds, cases, occasions, manifestations of the idea expressed by the abstract substantive; or is referred to several persons: ἀγνωμοσύναι misunderstandings X. A. 2.5.6, θάλπη degrees of heat X. M. 1.4.13. Used in the plural, abstract nouns may become concrete, as ταφαί funeral T. 2.34 (ταφή sepulture), εὐφροσύναι good cheer X. C. 7.2.28 (εὐφροσύνη mirth), χάριτες proofs of good will, presents D. 8.53, εὔνοιαι cases of benevolence, presents D. 8.25.

a. Many concrete substantives are commonly used only in the plural: πύλαι gate, θύραι door, τὰ Ὀλύμπια the Olympic festival; and in poetry δώματα house, κλί_μακες ladder, λέκτρα bed; cp. cross1006.

b. The plural, especially in poetry, may correspond to the English indefinite singular: ἐπὶ ναυσί by ship.

Previous Sub2Sect

Next Sub2Sect


Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Powered by PhiloLogic