Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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OBJECT CLAUSES WITH VERBS OF FEARING 2221

Object clauses after verbs of fear and caution are introduced by μή that, lest (Lat. ne), μὴ οὐ that . . . not, lest . . . not (Lat. ut = ne non).

a. μή clauses denote a fear that something may or might happen; μὴ οὐ clauses denote a fear that something may not or might not happen. Observe that the verb is negatived by οὐ and not by μή, which expresses an apprehension that the result will take place. μή is sometimes, for convenience, translated by whether; but it is not an indirect interrogative in such cases.

2222

The construction of μή after verbs of fearing has been developed from an earlier coördinate construction in which μή was not a conjunction (that, lest) but a prohibitive particle. Thus, δείδω μή τι πάθῃσιν (Λ 470) I fear lest he may suffer aught was developed from I fear + may he not suffer aught ( cross1802); φυλακὴ δέ τις . . . ἔστω, μὴ λόχος εἰσέλθῃσι πόλιν (Θ 521) but let there be a guard, lest an ambush enter the city, where the clause μὴ—εἰσέλθῃσι meant originally may an ambush not enter. Here μή expresses the desire to avert something (negative desire).

a. When μή had become a pure conjunction of subordination, it was used even with the indicative and with the optative with ἄν. Some scholars regard μή with the indicative as standing for ἆρα μή (hence an indirect interrogative). Observe that the character of μή after verbs of fearing is different from that in final clauses, though the construction is the same in both cases.

2223

For the use of the subjunctive, without a verb of fearing, with μή, see cross1801, cross1802; with μὴ οὐ see cross1801, with οὐ μή see cross1804.

2224

Verbs and expressions of fear are: φοβοῦμαι, δέδοικα or δέδια, ταρβῶ, τρῶ and πέφρι_κα (mostly poetical); δεινός εἰμι, δεινόν ἐστι, δέος ἐστί, φοβερός εἰμι, φοβερόν ἐστι, etc.

-- 501 --

a. Sometimes it is not actual fear that is expressed but only apprehension, anxiety, suspicion, etc. These are the verbs and expressions of caution: ὀκνῶ, ἀθυ_μῶ, ἀπιστῶ, ἀπιστία_ν ἔχω (παρέχω), ὑποπτεύω, ἐνθυ_μοῦμαι, αἰσχύ_νομαι (rare), κίνδυ_νός ἐστι, προσδοκία_ ἐστί. Here belong also, by analogy, ὁρῶ, σκοπῶ, ἐννοῶ, εὐλαβοῦμαι, φροντίζω, φυλάττω (-ομαι), which admit also the construction of verbs of effort ( cross2210 b).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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