Final clauses denote purpose and are introduced by ἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς
a. Also by ὄφρα, strictly while, until, in Epic and Lyric; and ἕως in Epic ( cross2418). ἵνα is the chief final conjunction in Aristophanes, Herodotus, Plato, and the orators. It is the only purely final conjunction in that it does not limit the idea of purpose by the idea of time (like ὄφρα and ἕως), or of manner (like ὅπως and ὡς); and therefore never takes ἄν (κέν), since the purpose is regarded as free from all conditions ( cross2201 b). ὅπως is the chief final conjunction in Thucydides, and in Xenophon (slightly more common than ἵνα). ὡς often shows the original meaning
b. In order that no one is ἵνα (etc.) μηδείς or μή τις,
Final clauses were developed from original coördination.
θάπτε με ὅττι τάχιστα· πύλα_ς Ἀίδα_ο περήσω
καί σε πρὸς . . . θεῶν ἱκνοῦμαι μὴ προδοὺς ἡμᾶς γένῃ
A final clause stands in apposition to τούτου ἕνεκα or διὰ τοῦτο expressed or understood. Thus, ἐκκλησία_ν τούτου ἕνεκα ξυνήγαγον ὅπως ὑπομνήσω
The verb of a final clause stands in the subjunctive after an introductory primary tense, in the optative (sometimes in the subjunctive, cross2197) after a secondary tense.
γράφω ἵνα ἐκμάθῃς
γράφω ἵνα μὴ ἐκμάθῃς
ἔγραψα ἵνα ἐκμάθοις (or ἐκμάθῃς) I wrote (on this account) that you might learn.
ἔγραψα ἵνα μὴ ἐκμάθοις (or ἐκμάθῃς) I wrote (on this account) that you might not learn.
κατάμενε ἵνα καὶ περὶ σοῦ βουλευσώμεθα
βασιλεὺς αἱρεῖται οὐχ ἵνα ἑαυτοῦ καλῶς ἐπιμελῆται, ἀλλ' ἵνα καὶ οι' ἑλόμενοι δι' αὐτὸν εὖ πρά_ττωσι
παρακαλεῖς ἰ_α_τροὺς ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ
ὅπως ἀπὸ τῶν δυσχωριῶν φυλάττοιεν αὐτόν
καὶ ἅμα ταῦτ' εἰπὼν ἀνέστη ὡς μὴ μέλλοιτο ἀλλὰ περαίνοιτο τὰ δέοντα
μὴ σπεῦδε πλουτεῖν μὴ ταχὺς πένης γένῃ
After a secondary tense, the subjunctive may be used in place of the optative.
a. In the narration of past events, the subjunctive sets forth a person's previous purpose in the form in which he conceived his purpose. Thus (τὰ πλοῖα) Ἀβροκόμα_ς . . . κατέκαυσεν ἵνα μὴ Κῦρος διαβῇ
N.—Thucydides and Herodotus prefer this vivid subjunctive; the poets, Plato, and Xenophon, the optative. In Demosthenes, the subjunctive and optative are equally common.
b. When the purpose (or its effect) is represented as still continuing in the present. See the example in 2195. This use is closely connected with a.
c. After τί οὐ, τί οὖν οὐ, and the aorist indicative: τί οὖν οὐχὶ τὰ μὲν τείχη φυλακῇ ἐχυρὰ ἐποιήσαμεν ὅπως ἄν ( cross2201) σοι σᾶ ᾖ κτλ.; why then do we not make your walls strong by a garrison that they may be safe for you, etc.?
The alternative construction of final clauses with subjunctive or optative is that of implicit indirect discourse ( cross2622). The subjunctive is always possible instead of the optative. Observe that the subjunctive for the optative is relatively past, since the leading verb is past.2199
After a secondary tense both subjunctive and optative may be used in the same sentence.
ναῦς οἱ Κορίνθιοι . . . ἐπλήρουν ὅπως ναυμαχία_ς τε ἀποπειρἁ_σωσι . . ., καὶ τὰ_ς ὁλκάδας αὐτῶν ἦσσον οἱ ἐν τῇ Ναυπάκτῳ Ἀθηναῖοι κωλύ_οιεν ἀπαίρειν
a. In some cases, especially when the subjunctive precedes, the subjunctive may express the immediate purpose, the realization of which is expected; while the optative expresses the less immediate purpose conceived as a consequence of the action of the subjunctive or as a mere possibility.2200
The optative is very rare after a primary tense except when that tense implies a reference to the past as well as to the present.
οἴχονται ἵνα μὴ δοῖεν δίκην
ὅπως with the subjunctive sometimes takes ἄν in positive clauses.
τοῦτ' αὐτὸ νῦν δίδασχ', ὅπως ἂν ἐκμάθω
ἄξεις ἡμᾶς ὅπως ἂν εἰδῶμεν
a. ὡς and ὄφρα with ἄν or κέ occur in poetry, especially in Homer. ὡς ἄν (first in Aeschylus) is very rare in Attic prose, but occurs eight times in Xenophon; as
ὡς δ' ἂν μάθῃς . . ., ἀντάκουσον
b. ἄν (κέ) does not appreciably affect the meaning. Originally these particles seem to have had a limiting and conditional force ( cross1762): ὡς ἄν
ἱ_κόμην τὸ Πυ_θικὸν μαντεῖον, ὡς μάθοιμ' ὅτῳ τρόπῳ πατρὶ δίκα_ς ἀροίμην
ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν with the optative occur very rarely in Attic prose (in Xenophon especially), and more frequently after secondary than after primary tenses.
ἔδωκε χρήματα Ἀνταλκίδᾳ ὅπως ἂν πληρωθέντος ναυτικοῦ . . . οἵ τε Ἀθηναῖοι . . . μᾶλλον τῆς εἰρήνης προσδέοιντο
a. Homer has a few cases of ὡς ἄν (κέ) and ὄφρ' ἄν (κέ); ἵνα κεν once (μ 156). Hdt. has ὡς ἄν, ὅκως ἄν rarely.
b. After primary tenses the optative with ἄν is certainly, after secondary tenses probably, potential. Its combination with the final conjunction produces
a conditional relative clause in which the relative and interrogative force of ὅπως and ὡς comes to light. With ὅπως ἄν the final force is stronger than with ὡς ἄν. In the example quoted above, πληρωθέντος ναυτικοῦ represents the protasis (εἰ ναυτικὸν πληρωθείη) to ἂν προσδέοιντο.2203
The future indicative is used, especially in poetry, after ὅπως (rarely after ὡς, ὄφρα, and μή) in the same sense as the subjunctive.
οὐδὲ δι' ἓν ἄλλο τρέφονται ἢ ὅπως μαχοῦνται
The principal clause is sometimes omitted.
ἵν' ἐκ τούτων ἄρξωμαι
Equivalents of a Final Clause.—The common methods of expressing purpose may be illustrated by the translations (in Attic) of they sent a herald to announce:
ἔπεμψαν κήρυ_κα ἵνα (ὅπως) ἀπαγγέλλοιτο ( cross2196).
ἔπεμψαν κήρυ_κα ὅστις (ὃς) ἀπαγγελεῖται ( cross2554).
ἔπεμψαν κήρυ_κα ὡς ἀπαγγελοῦντα ( cross2086 c).
ἔπεμψαν κήρυ_κα ἀπαγγέλλειν (rare in prose, cross2009).
ἔπεμψαν κήρυ_κα τοῦ ἀπαγγέλλειν ( cross2032 e, often in Thucydides).
ἔπεμψαν κήρυ_κα ὑπὲρ (ἕνεκα) τοῦ ἀπαγγέλλειν ( cross2032 g).
For ὥστε denoting an intended result, see cross2267.
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].