Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2148

The participle often agrees with the logical, and not with the grammatical, subject. The participle thus often agrees with the subject of the finite verb which the writer had in mind when he began the sentence, but for which he later substitutes another verb; or the participle may later be used as if in agreement with the subject of another finite verb than the one actually employed.

a. A participle in the nominative may belong to a finite verb requiring an oblique case. Thus, ἀποβλέψα_ς πρὸς τοῦτον τὸν στόλον . . ., ἔδοξέ μοι πάγκαλος εἶναι (= ἡγησάμην πάγκαλον εἶναι) on looking at this expedition, it seemed to me to be very admirable P. L. 686d, ἔχοντες . . . ἀρχὴν μεγίστην . . ., ὅμως οὐδὲν τούτων ἡμᾶς ἐπῆρε (= οὐδενὶ τούτων ἐπήρθημεν) ἐξαμαρτεῖν although we possessed the greatest empire . . . levertheless none of these reasons induced us to do wrong I. 4.108, ἔδοξεν αὐτοις (= ἐβουλεύσαντο) οὐ τοὺς παρόντας μόνον ἀποκτεῖναι ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἅπαντας Μυτιληναίους . . . ἐπικαλοῦντες τὴν ἀπόστασιν κτλ. they decided

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to put to death not merely those who were there but also all the Mytilenaeans, urging against them their revolt, etc. T. 3.36.

b. Two or more substantives or pronouns with their participles may stand in partitive apposition ( cross981) to the logical subject. Thus, τὰ περὶ Πύλον ὑπ' ἀμφοτέρων κατὰ κράτος ἐπολεμεῖτο (= ἀμφότεροι ἐπολέμουν), Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν . . . τὴν νῆσον περιπλέοντες . . ., Πελοποννήσιοι δὲ ἐν τῇ ἡπείρῳ στρατοπεδευόμενοι the war at Pylus was vigorously waged by both sides, the Athenians on their part by sailing around the island . . . the Peloponnesians by encamping on the mainland T. 4.23. Cp. λόγοι δ' ἐν ἀλλήλοισιν ἐρρόθουν κακοί, φύλαξ ἐλέγχων φύλακα bitter words flew loud from one to another, watchman accusing watchman S. Ant. 259. As the sentence stands, we expect φύλακος ἐλέγχοντος φύλακα, but the first clause is equivalent to κακοὺς λόγους εἴπομεν ἀλλήλους. Cp. θαυμάζοντες ἄλλος ἄλλῳ ἔλεγεν one spoke to the other in astonishment P. S. 220c. Cp. cross982.

c. Without regard to the following construction, a participle may stand in the nominative. The use of the genitive absolute would here be proper, but would cause the main subject of the thought to occupy a subordinate position. Thus, ἐπιπεσὼν τῇ Φαρναβάζου στρατοπεδείᾳ, τῆς μὲν προφυλακῆς αὐτοῦ Μυ_σῶν ὄντων πολλοὶ ἔπεσον attacking the camp of Pharnabazus, he slew a large number (= πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινε) of Mysians who constituted his advance guard X. H. 4.1.24.

N. The nominative participle is sometimes found in clauses without a finite verb, but only when some finite verb is to be supplied (cp. Ψ 546), as with εἰ, ἐά_ν, ὅταν (X. M. 2.1.23); with ὅσα μή as far as is possible (T. 1.111); in replies in dialogue, where it stands in apposition to the subject of the preceding sentence (P. Ph. 74b); or is interposed as a parenthesis (εὖ ποιοῦν in D. 23.143).

d. Likewise a participle may stand in the accusative or (rarely) in the dative when the construction demands another case. Thus, σοὶ δὲ συγγνώμη (= συγγνώμη ἐστὶ σὲ) λέγειν τάδ' ἐστί, μὴ πάσχουσαν ὡς ἐγὼ κακῶς it is excusable for thee to speak thus, since thou dost not suffer cruelly as I do E. Med. 814, ἦν ἡ γνώμη τοῦ Ἀριστέως (= ἔδοξε τῷ Ἀριστεῖ), τὸ μὲν μεθ' ἑαυτοῦ στρατόπεδον ἔχοντι ἐν τῷ ἰσθμῷ ἐπιτηρεῖν τοὺς Ἀθηναίους Aristeus decided to keep his own forces at the Isthmus and watch for the Athenians T. 1.62.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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