]. VERBS TAKING EITHER THE PARTICIPLE OR THE INFINITIVE
Some verbs admit either the supplementary participle or the infinitive, sometimes with only a slight difference in meaning. Cases where the difference is marked are given below. (Most of the verbs in question admit also a substantive clause with ὅτι or ὡς, cross2577).
Infinitive and participle here differ greatly when the infinitive expresses purpose or result. Where the infinitive shows only its abstract verbal meaning it differs but little from the participle (cp. cross2144).
A participle or infinitive standing in indirect discourse is indicated in 2126-2143 by O (ratio) O (bliqua); when not standing in O. O. this fact is ordinarily not indicated.
αἰσχύ_νομαι and αἰδοῦμαι with part. ( cross2100) = I am ashamed of doing something which I do; with inf. = I am ashamed to do something which I have refrained from doing up to the present time and may never do. Thus,
X. C. 5.1.21,
τοῦτο μὲν οὐκ αἰσχύ_νομαι λέγων· τὸ δὲ . . . αἰσχυ_νοίμην ἂν λέγειν I am not ashamed of saying this; but the following I should be ashamed to say
P. A. 22b. With a negative the distinction may disappear: οὐδ' αἰσχύ_νει φθόνου δίκην εἰσάγειν (v.l. εἰσάγων), οὐκ ἀδικήματος οὐδενός, καὶ νόμους μεταποιῶν; are you not ashamed to bring a cause into court out of envy—not for any offence—and to alter laws? D. 18.121.
αἰσχύ_νομαι οὖν ὑ_μῖν εἰπεῖν τἀ_ληθῆ, ὅμως δὲ ῥητέον I am ashamed to speak the truth to you; nevertheless it must be spoken
ἀνέχομαι ( cross2098; rarely with the inf.), *τλάω and τολμῶ (both rarely with the part. in poetry), ὑπομένω: with part. = endure, submit to something that is present or past; with inf. venture or have the courage to do something in the future. Thus,
πάσχοντες ἠνείχοντο they submitted to suffer
Hdt. 7.139; παῖδα . . . φα_σὶν Ἀλκμήνης πρα_θέντα τλῆναι they say that Alcmene's son bore up in bondage (lit. having been sold) A. Ag. 1041;
ἀνέσχοντο τὸν ἐπιόντα ἐπὶ τὴν χώρα_ν δέξασθαι they had the courage to receive the invader of their country
ἐτόλμα_ βαλλόμενος he submitted to be struck
A. Pr. 1000;
τόλμησον ὀρθῶς φρονεῖν sapere aude
P. G. 505c,
οὐχ ὑπομένει ὠφελούμενος he cannot stand being improved
εἰ ὑμομενέουσι χεῖρας ἐμοὶ ἀνταειρόμενοι if they shall dare to raise their hands against me
ἄρχομαι, cp. cross1734 (Hom. ἄρχω) with part. ( cross2098), begin to do something and continue with something else; with inf. (usually present, cp. cross1865 b) begin to do something and continue with the same thing. Thus, ἄρξομαι διδάσκων ἐκ τῶν θείων I will begin my instruction with things divine (later the subject is the desire for wealth) X. C. 8.8.2, πόθεν ἤρξατό σε διδάσκειν τὴν στρατηγία_ν; at what point did he begin to teach you generalship? X. M. 3.1.5. ἄρχομαι with the participle occurs only in Xenophon and Plato.
-- 475 --
γιγνώσκω with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = recognize that something is; with inf. in three uses: (1) in O. O. = judge (decide) that something is (a verb of will), as
X. A. 1.9.17; (2) not in O. O. = resolve, determine to do something, as
ἔγνωσαν κερδαλεώτερον εἶναι they judged that it was more profitable
X. H. 4.6.9; (3) not in O. O. = learn how to do something (rarely), as
ἔγνω διώκειν τοὺς ἐκ τῶν εὐωνύμων προσκειμένους he resolved to pursue those who were hanging on his left
Men. Sent. 20.
γίγνωσκε τῆς ὀργῆς κρατεῖν learn to control thy temper
δείκνυ_μι with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = show that something is; with inf. (ἀποδείκνυ_μι) not in O. O. = show how to do something, instruct. Thus,
X. A. 2.3.14.
ἀπέδειξαν οἱ ἡγεμόνες λαμβάνειν τὰ ἐπιτήδεια the guides directed them to take provisions
δηλῶ with part. (and inf.) in O. O. ( cross2106) = show that sometking is, indicate; with inf. not in O. O. = command, make known, signify; as in κηρύ_γματι ἐδήλου τοὺς ἐλευθερία_ς δεομένους ὡς πρὸς σύμμαχον αὐτὸν παρεῖναι he made known by proclamation that those who wanted freedom should come to him as an ally X. Ag. 1. 33.
δοκιμάζω with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = prove to be, as
L. 31.34; with inf. in O. O. = pronounce an opinion to be correct. Thus,
ὁποῖοί τινες ὄντες αὐτοὶ περὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐδοκιμάσθητε what sort of persons you proved yourselves to be in regard to the city
X. O. 6.8.
ἐδοκιμάσαμεν ἀνδρὶ καλῷ τε κἀ_γαθῷ ἐργασία_ν εἶναι . . . κρατίστην γεωργία_ν we approved the idea that tilling of the soil is the best occupation for a gentleman
ἔοικα ( cross1983, cross2089 c) with nom. part. = appear, oftener with dat. part. (strictly = am like), appear; with inf. = seem. Thus,
X. H. 6.3.8, ἔοικας δεδιότι τοὺς πολλούς strictly you are like one who fears (i.e. you appear to fear) the multitude P. R. 527d,
ἐοίκατε τυραννίσι μᾶλλον ἢ πολι_τείαις ἡδόμενοι you appear to take delight in despotisms rather than in constitutional governments
X. Ap. 29,
οὐκ ἔοικεν εἰδέναι he seems not to know
S. Ph. 317.
ἔοικα ἐποικτί_ρειν σε methinks I pity thee
ἐπιλανθάνομαι with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = forget that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = forget (how) to do something. Thus,
P. R. 563b.
ὀλίγου ἐπελαθόμεθ' εἰπεῖν I have almost forgotten to mention
εὑρίσκω with part. in O. O. = judge and not in O. O. ( cross2113) = find that something is; less often with inf. in O. O. = judge, as εὕρισκε ταῦτα καιριώτατα εἶναι he found (judged) that this was the most opportune way Hdt. 1.125. εὑρίσκομαι rarely with inf. = find how to (E. Med. 196), procure by asking (Hdt. 9.28).
μανθάνω with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = learn that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = learn (how) to do something. Thus,
διαβεβλημένος οὐ μανθάνεις you do not perceive that you have been calumniated
X. A. 3.2.25.
ἂ_ν ἅπαξ μάθωμεν ἀ_ργοὶ ζῆν if we once learn to live in idleness
μεθί_ημι (let go), etc., with part. = leave off; with inf. = neglect, permit. Thus, -- 476 --
οὐ γὰρ ἀνίει ἐπιών for he did not stop coming after them
X. M. 2.1.33,
μεθι_ᾶσι τὰ δέοντα πρά_ττειν they neglect to perform their duties
S. El. 628.
μεθεῖσά μοι λέγειν allowing me to speak
μέμνημαι with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = remember that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = remember to do something. Thus,
X. A. 3.2.39.
μεμνήσθω ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς εἶναι let in him be mindful to be a brave man
οἶδα and ἐπίσταμαι with part. in O. O. ( cross2106) = know that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = know how to do something. Thus,
X. A. 5.7.25. In poetry (very rarely in prose, except with ἐπίσταμαι in Hdt.) these verbs take also the inf. (in O. O.) in the meaning know or believe:
ἐπιστάμενος νεῖν knowing how to swim
S. Ant. 1094.
ἐπιστάμεθα μή πώ ποτ' αὐτὸν ψεῦδος λακεῖν we know that he has never yet spoken falsehood
παύω with part. ( cross2098) = stop what is taking place; with inf. = prevent something from taking place. Thus,
P. Menex. 241b,
ἔπαυσαν φοβουμένους πλῆθος νεῶν they stopped their terror at the number of ships
παύσαντες τὸ μὴ προσελθεῖν ἐγγὺς τὴν ὁλκάδα preventing the merchantman from drawing near
περιορῶ, etc. ( cross2103) with pres. part. = view with indifference, with aor. part. = shut one's eyes to; with inf. = let something happen through negligence, or simply permit (ἐᾶν). Thus, περιεῖδε τὸν αὑτοῦ πατέρα καὶ ζῶντα τῶν ἀναγκαίων σπανίζοντα καὶ τελευτήσαντ' ου' τυχόντα τῶν νομίμων he looked on with indifference while his own father was in want of necessities when alive and (shut his eyes) to his failure to receive the customary rites after he had passed away Dinarchus 2. 8,
T. 2.20, οὐδ' ἐσιέναι ἔφασαν περιόψεσθαι οὐδένα they refused to permit any one to enter 4. 48.
οἱ Ἀχαρνῆς . . . οὐ περιόψεσθαι ἐδόκουν τὰ σφέτερα διαφθαρέντα it did not seem likely that the Acharnians would shut their eyes to the destruction of their property
ποιῶ. with part. ( cross2115) = represent; with inf. not in O. O. = cause, effect; with inf. in O. O. = assume. Thus,
Hdt. 7.129, ποιώμεθα (conj. τί οἰώμεθα) τὸν φιλόσοφον νομίζειν κτλ. let us assume that the philosopher holds, etc. P. R. 581d.
ἀνωνύμους τοὺς ἄλλους εἶναι ποιεῖ causes the others to lose their names
φαίνομαι with part in O. O. ( cross2106) = I am plainly; with inf. in O. O. = I seem or it appears (but may not be true) that I. Thus, φαίνεται τἀ_ληθῆ λέγων he is evidently speaking the truth, φαίνεται τἀ_ληθῆ λέγειν he appears to be speaking the truth (but he may be lying). Cp. τῇ φωνῇ . . . κλαίειν ἐφαίνετο lit. by his voice it appeared that he was weeping (but he was not weeping) X. S. 1. 15. The above distinction is, however, not always maintained.
The following verbs take either the participle or the infinitive (in O. O.) with no (or only slight) difference in meaning:
αἰσθάνομαι, ἀκούω, πυνθάνομαι ( cross2112), ἀγγέλλω ( cross2106), καθίζω ( cross2105) and καθίστημι, παρασκευάζομαι, ὁμολογῶ ( cross2106), πειρῶμαι ( cross2102), ἐπιτρέπω and νομίζω (part. rare), ἀποκάμνω (inf. rare), θαυμάζω wonder, τίθημι suppose, the expressions of 2104, etc. Both infinitive and participle with πυνθάνομαι in Hdt. 5.15, 8. 40.
Verbs of intellectual perception ( cross2112 b) take also ὅτι or ὡς. So with ἀκούω, αἰσθάνομαι, πυνθάνομαι. Cp.
ἀκούω with gen. part. = I hear (with my own ears).
ἀκούω with accus. part. = I hear (through others, i.e. I am told) that.
ἀκούω with inf. = I hear (of general, not certain knowledge, as by report) that.