Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The supplementary participle not in indirect discourse is often like an object infinitive, the tenses denoting only stage of action and not difference of time (cp. cross1850). Thus, compare παύομέν σε λέγοντα we stop you from speaking (of continued action) with κωλύ_ομέν σε λέγειν we prevent you from speaking (also of continued action).


With verbs denoting being in some modified way ( cross2096-2097).


τυγχάνω (poet. κυρῶ) happen, am just now, λανθάνω escape the notice of, am secretly, φθάνω anticipate, am beforehand.

a. With these verbs the participle contains the main idea, and is often represented in translation by the finite verb with an adverbial phrase; thus, παρὼν ἐτύγχανε he happened to be there, or he was there by chance X. A. 1.1.2.

b. The action of φθάνω and λανθάνω usually coincides with that of the supplementary participle (present with present, aorist with aorist). But the aorist of a finite verb is occasionally followed by the present participle when it is necessary to mark an action or a state as continuing. οὐκ ἔλαθον is like an imperfect and may take the present participle. The aorist of τυγχάνω very often takes the present participle. With a present or imperfect of τυγχάνω, λανθάνω, φθάνω, the (rare) aorist participle refers to an action or state anterior to that of the present or imperfect. Many of the cases of the present of τυγχάνω with the

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aorist participle are historical presents; and in some cases the aorist participle is used for the perfect. With other tenses than present or imperfect, an aorist participle with these verbs refers to an action or state coincident in time (cp. cross1873).

c. τυγχάνω often loses the idea of chance, and denotes mere coincidence in time (I am just now, I was just then) or simply I am (was).

d. Examples. τυγχάνω: προξενῶν τυγχάνω I happen to be proxenus D. 52.5, ἄριστα τυγχάνουσι πρά_ξαντες they happen to have fared the best I. 4.103, ἐτύγχανον λέγων I was just saying X. A. 3.2.10, ὅστις ἀντειπών γε ἐτύγχανε καὶ γνώμην ἀποδεδειγμένος who happened to have spoken in opposition and to have declared his opinion L. 12.27, ἔτυχον καθήμενος ἐνταῦθα I was, by chance, sitting there P. Eu. 272e. λανθάνω: φονέα τοῦ παιδὸς ἐλάνθανε βόσκων he entertained the murderer of his son without knowing it (it escaped his notice that he was, etc.) Hdt. 1.44, ἔλαθον ἐσελθόντες they got in secretly T. 2.2, οὐκ ἔλαθες ἀποδιδρά_σκων you did not escape notice in attempting to escape (your attempt at escape did not escape notice) P. R. 457e, ἔλαθεν ἀποδρά_ς he escaped without being noticed X. H. 1.3.22, λήσετε πάνθ' ὑπομείναντες you will submit to every possible calamity ere you are aware D. 6.27. φθάνω: οὐ φθάνει ἐξαγόμενος ὁ ἵππος κτλ. the horse is no sooner led out, etc. X. Eq. 5.10, φθάνουσιν (hist. pres.) ἐπὶ τῷ ἄκρῳ γενόμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους they anticipated the enemy in getting upon the summit (they got to the summit before the enemy) X. A. 3.4.49, οὐκ ἔφθασαν πυθόμενοι τὸν πόλεμον καὶ ἧκον scarcely had they heard of the war when they came I. 4.86, ὁπότεροι φθήσονται τὴν πόλιν ἀγαθόν τι ποιήσαντες which party shall anticipate the other in doing some service to the State I. 4.79. Without regard to its mood, the present and imperfect of φθάνω are followed by the present participle (rarely by the perfect); the future, aorist, and historical present are followed by the aorist participle.

e. οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις (φθάνοιτε) with the participle is used in urgent, but polite, exhortations, as οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις λέγων the sooner you speak the better (i.e. speak at once) X. M. 2.3.11. Strictly this is equivalent to you would not be anticipating (my wish or your duty), if you should speak. λέγε φθάσα_ς might be said according to 2061.

f. λανθάνω and φθάνω (rarely τυγχάνω) may appear in the participle, thus reversing the ordinary construction, as διαλαθὼν ἐσέρχεται ἐς τὴν Μι_τυλήνην he entered Mitylene secretly T. 3.25, φθάνοντες ἤδη δῃοῦμεν τὴν ἐκείνων γῆν we got the start of them by ravaging their territory X. C. 3.3.18. Cp. also 2062 a. The present participle is rare.


διάγω, διαγίγνομαι, διατελῶ, διαμένω continue, keep on, am continually.

διάγουσι μανθάνοντες they are continually (they spend their time in) learning X. C. 1.2.6. κρέα_ ἐσθίοντες οἱ στρατιῶται διεγίγνοντο the soldiers kept eating meat X. A. 1.5.6, διατελεῖ μι_σῶν he continues to hate X. C. 5.4.35, θρηνοῦντες διετελοῦμεν we lamented continually I. 19.27, ὁ ἥλιος λαμπρότατος ὢν διαμένει the sun continues to be most brilliant X. M. 4.7.7.


With verbs signifying to begin, cease, endure, grow weary of an action.

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ἄρχομαι begin ( cross2128), παύω cause to cease, παύομαι, λήγω cease, ἀπολείπω, διαλείπω, ἐπιλείπω leave off, ἐλλείπω support, καρτερῶ endure (do something patiently), κάμνω grow weary, ἀπαγορεύω give up, etc.

ἄρξομαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγων I will begin my speech with the healing art P. S. 186b, παύσω τοῦτο γιγνόμενον I will put a stop to this happening P. G. 523c, παῦσαι λέγουσα lit. stop talking E. Hipp. 706, οὐπώποτε διέλειπον ζητῶν I never left off seeking X. Ap. 16, ἀνέχου πάσχων support thy sufferings E. fr. 1090, οὔτε τότ' ἐκαρτέρουν ἀκούων κτλ. neither then did I listen patiently, etc., Aes. 3.118, μὴ κάμῃς φίλον ἄνδρα εὐεργετῶν do not grow weary of doing good to your friend P. G. 470c, ἀπείρηκα . . . τὰ ὅπλα φέρων καὶ ἐν τάξει ἰὼν καὶ φυλακὰ_ς φυλάττων καὶ μαχόμενος I am tired of carrying my arms and going in the ranks and mounting guard and fighting X. A. 5.1.2.

a. Verbs signifying to support, endure ordinarily take the present participle; but there are cases of the complexive aorist in reference to acts to which one must submit despite all resistance: so, with ἀνέχομαι, X. C. 6.2.18, D. 41.1; cp. οὐκ ἠνέσχεσθε ἀκούσαντες L. 13.8 (Hdt. 5.89) with οὐκ ἠνείχοντο ἀκούοντες X. H. 6.5.49. The aorist participle seems not to be used with the object of ἀνέχομαι.


With some verbs of coming and going the participle specifies the manner of coming and going, and contains the main idea.

βῆ φεύγων he took to flight (went fleeing) B 665, οἴχονται διώκοντες they have gone in pursuit X. A. 1.10.5, ᾠχόμην ἀναγόμενος I put to sea D. 50.12, οἴχεται θανών he is dead and gone S. Ph. 414, οὐ τοῦτο λέξων ἔρχομαι I am not going to say this X. Ag. 2. 7.


With verbs of emotion (rejoicing and grieving) the participle often denotes cause (cp. cross2048).

χαίρω, ἥδομαι, τέρπομαι, γέγηθα (poet.) am pleased, take pleasure, ἀγαπῶ, στέργω am content, ἀγανακτῶ, ἄχθομαι, χαλεπῶς φέρω am vexed, displeased, ῥᾳδίως φέρω make light of, λυ_ποῦμαι grieve, ὀργίζομαι am angry, αἰσχύ_νομαι, αἰδοῦμαι am ashamed ( cross2126), μεταμέλομαι, μεταμέλει μοι repent. (Verbs of emotion also take ὅτι or ὡς, by which construction the object is simply stated; with the participle the connection is closer).

χαίρω διαλεγόμενος τοῖς σφόδρα πρεσβύ_ταις I like to converse with very old men P. R. 328d, ὅστις ἥδεται λέγων ἀεί, λέληθεν αὑτὸν τοῖς ξυνοῦσιν ὢν βαρύς he who likes to be always talking is a bore to his companions without knowing it S. fr. 99, οὐκ ἀγαπῶ ζῶν ἐπὶ τούτοις I am not content to live on these conditions I. 12.8, οὐκ ἂν ἀχθοίμην μανθάνων I should not be annoyed at learning P. Lach. 189a, χαλεπῶς ἔφερον οἰκία_ς κατελείποντες they took it hard at abandoning their homes T. 2.16, ἀδικούμενοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι μᾶλλον ὀργίζονται ἢ βιαζόμενοι men are more angered at being the victims of injustice than of compulsion 1. 77, οὐ γὰρ αἰσχύ_νομαι μανθάνων for I am not ashamed to learn P. Hipp. Min. 372 c, μετεμέλοντο τὰ_ς σπονδὰ_ς οὐ δεξάμενοι they repented not having accepted the truce T. 4.27, οὔ μοι μεταμέλει οὕτως ἀπολογησαμένῳ I do not repent having made such a defence P. A. 38e.

a. The participle agrees with the case of the person in regard to whom the emotion is manifested: ἀκούοντες χαίρουσιν ἐξεταζομένοις τοῖς οἰομένοις μὲν εἶναι

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σοφοῖς, οὖσι δ' οὔ they like to hear the examination of those who pretend to be wise, but are not so in reality P. A. 33c. This construction must be distinguished from that occurring in poetry, whereby verbs like χαίρω and ἄχθομαι (which commonly take the dative) often admit the accusative and the participle: τοὺς γὰρ εὐσεβεῖς θεοὶ θνῄσκοντας οὐ χαίρουσι for the gods do not rejoice at the death of the righteous E. Hipp. 1339.

b. So with verbs meaning to satiate oneself: ὑπισχνούμενος οὐκ ἐνεπίμπλασο you could not satiate yourself with promises X. A. 7.7.46.


With verbs signifying to do well or ill, to surpass or be inferior, the participle specifies the manner or that in which the action of the verb consists (cp. cross2048, cross2062). So with καλῶς (εὖ) ποιῶ, ἀδικῶ, ἁμαρτάνω; νι_κῶ, κρατῶ, περιγίγνομαι, ἡττῶμαι, λείπομαι.

εὖ γ' ἐποίησας ἀναμνήσα_ς με you did well in reminding me P. Ph. 60c (cp. cross1872 c. 2), καλῶς ἐποίησεν οὕτως τελευτήσα_ς τὸν βίον he did well in ending his life thus L. 28.8, ὀνήσεσθε ἀκούοντες you will profit by hearing P. A. 30c, ἀδικεῖτε πολέμου ἄρχοντες ( cross1734. 5) you do wrong in being the aggressors in the war T. 1.53, οὐχ ἡττησόμεθα εὖ ποιοῦντες we shall not be outdone in well-doing X. A. 2.3.23. Here belongs ἐμοὶ χαρίζου ἀποκπι_νάμενος do me the favour to reply (gratify me by replying) P. R. 338a.


With πειρῶμαι try, πολὺς ἔγκειμαι am urgent, πάντα ποιῶ do everything, the participle is rare in Attic; more common in Hdt. with πειρῶμαι, πολλὸς ἔγκειμαι, πολλός εἰμι am urgent, etc.

πειρα_σόμεθα ἐλέγχοντες I shall try to prove Ant. 2. γ. 1; πολλὸς ἦν λισσόμενος he begged often and urgently Hdt. 9.91.


With περιορῶ (and sometimes with ἐφορῶ, εἰσορῶ, προί_εμαι), signifying overlook, allow. (But not with ἐῶ.) Cp. cross2141.

μείζω γιγνόμενον τὸν ἄνθρωπον περιορῶμεν we allow the man to grow greater (we look with indifference on his growing power) D. 9.29, οὐ περιεῖδον ἐμαυτὸν ἄδοξον γενόμενον I did not suffer myself to become obscure I. 12.11, ἔτλησαν ἐπιδεῖν . . . ἐρήμην μὲν τὴν πόλιν γενομένην, τὴν δὲ χώρα_ν πορθουμένην they had the courage to look calmly on their city made desolate and their country being ravaged I. 4.96. So even with the uncompounded ὁρῶ in poetry. (With the infinitive περιορῶ no longer connotes perception and simply equals ἐῶ allow.)


With some impersonal expressions taking the dative, such as those signifying the advantage or consequence of an action (it is fitting, profitable, good, etc.), and those implying confidence or fear. (The personal construction is often preferred.)

ἐπηρώτων τὸν θεόν, εἰ (αὐτοῖς) πολεμοῦσιν ἄμεινον ἔσται they asked the god whether it would be better for them to make war T. 1.118, εἰ τόδ' αὐτῷ φίλον (ἐστί) κεκλημένῳ if it is pleasing to him to be called thus A. Ag. 161. Personal: οἷς πολέμιον ἦν τὸ χωρίον κτιζόμενον to whom the settlement of the place was a menace T. 1.100, οἴκοι μένων βελτί_ων (ἐστίν) he is all the better by staying at home D. 3.34 (for μένειν αὐτὸν βέλτι_όν ἐστι).


The participle occurs with various other verbs, such as θαμίζω am

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wont; συμπἱ_πτω and συμβαίνω happen; ἀποδείκνυ_μι, καθίζω, παρασκευάζω, meaning render; ἀρκῶ, ἱκανός εἰμι am sufficient.

On ἐμοὶ βουλομένῳ ἐστί, etc., see cross1487. On ἔχω and the participle in periphrases, see cross1963.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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