Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2089

The supplementary participle agrees either with the subject or with the object of the main verb; with the subject when the verb is intransitive or passive, with the object when the verb is transitive.

οὔποτ' ἐπαυόμην ἡμᾶς οἰκτί_ρων I never ceased pitying ourselves X. A. 3.1.19, τοὺς πένητας ἔπαυσ' ἀδικουμένους I put a stop to the poor being wronged D. 18.102, ἑώρων οὐ κατορθοῦντες καὶ τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς ἀχθομένους they saw that they (themselves) were not succeeding and that the soldiers were indignant T. 7.47, ἀδικοῦντα φίλιππον ἐξήλεγξα I proved that Philip was acting unjustly D. 18.136, εὐθὺς ἐλεγχθήσεται γελοῖος ὤν he will straightway be proved to be ridiculous X. M. 1.7.2.

a. When the object is the same as the subject, it is commonly suppressed, and the participle agrees with the subject. Thus, ὁρῶ ἐξαμαρτάνων I see that I err E. Med. 350, ἴσθι ἀνόητος ὤν know that you are a fool X. A. 2.1.13, οὐκ αἰσθάνεσθε ἐξαπατώμενοι; do you not perceive that you are being deceived? X. H. 7.1.12, ἐδήλωσε τῶν νόμων καταφρονῶν he showed that he despised the laws And. 4.14.

b. For the sake of emphasis or contrast (and to secure greater symmetry) the object may be expressed by the reflexive pronoun. Thus, οἶδα ἐμαυτὸν δικαίως κεχρημένον αὐτοῖς I know that I have presented my case honestly I. 15.321, δεῖξον οὐ πεποιηκότα ταῦτα σαυτόν show that you did not do this yourself D. 22.29, ἀμφότερ' οὖν οἶδε, καὶ αὑτὸν ὑ_μῖν ἐπιβουλεύοντα, καὶ ὑ_μᾶς αἰσθανομένους now he knows both—that he is himself plotting against you and that you are aware of it D. 6.18. Observe ἐλάνθανον αὑτοὺς ἐπὶ τῷ λόφῳ γενόμενοι (agreeing with the subject) without knowing it they found themselves on the hill X. A. 6.3.22. On the use with σύνοιδα, see cross2108.

c. ἔοικα (the personal use for the impersonal ἔοικε, cross1983) usually takes the participle in the dative; as, ἔοικας ὀκνοῦντι λέγειν you seem reluctant to speak P. R. 414c; but also in the nominative (see cross2133).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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