With participles of cause or purpose, etc. ( cross2064, cross2065): ὡς. This particle sets forth the ground of belief on which the agent acts, and denotes the thought, assertion, real or presumed intention, in the mind of the subject of the principal verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence, without implicating the speaker or writer.
a. Thus, ἀπῆλθον ὡς νι_κήσαντες may mean either they departed under the impression that they had been victorious (though as a matter of fact they may have been defeated) or pretending that they had been victorious (when they knew they had been defeated). The use of ὡς implies nothing as to the opinion of the speaker or writer. On the other hand ἀπῆλθον νι_κήσαντες means that, as a matter of fact, and on the authority of the writer, they had been victorious.
b. ὡς may be rendered as if (though there is nothing conditional in the Greek use, as is shown by the negative οὐ, not μή), by in the opinion (
ἐνταῦθ' ἔμενον ὡς τὸ ἄκρον κατέχοντες · οἱ δ' ου' κατεῖχον, ἀλλὰ μαστὸς ἦν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν
d. ὡς with the absolute participle:
οὐ δεῖ ἀθυ_μεῖν ὡς οὐκ εὐτάκτων ὄντων Ἀθηναίων
ἔλεγε θαρρεῖν ὡς καταστησομένων τούτων ἐς τὸ δέον
ὡς ἐξὸν ἤδη ποιεῖν αὐτοῖς ὅ τι βούλοιντο, πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινον
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].