Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2061

Time.—The time denoted by the participle is only relative to that of the governing verb, and is to be inferred from the context. Each participial form in itself expresses only stage of action ( cross1850).

ἀκούσα_σι τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ταῦτα ἔδοξε τὸ στράτευμα συναγαγεῖν on hearing this it seemed best to the generals to collect the troops X. A. 4.4.19.

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a. Several temporal participles have an adverbial force: ἀρχόμενος in the beginning, at first, τελευτῶν at last, finally, διαλιπὼν (or ἐπισχὼν) χρόνον after a while, διαλείπων χρόνον at intervals, χρονίζων for a long time. Thus, ἅπερ καὶ ἀρχόμενος εἶπον as I said at the outset T. 4.64, τελευτῶν ἐχαλέπαινεν at last he became angry X. A. 4.5.16. Note ἀρξάμενος ἀπό τινος beginning with or especially.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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