Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The attributive participle (with any modifier), with or without the article, modifies a substantive like any other adjective.

ὁ ἐφεστηκὼς κίνδυ_νος τῇ πόλει the danger impending over the State D. 18.176, οἱ ὄντες ἐχθροί the existing enemies 6. 15, ὁ παρὼν καιρός the present crisis 3. 3, τὸ Κοτύλαιον ὀνομαζόμενον ὄρος the mountain called Cotylaeum Aes. 3.86, αἱ Αἰόλου νῆσοι καλούμεναι the so-called islands of Aeolus T. 3.88 (cp. cross1170). For the position of an attributive participle with its modifiers, see cross1166.


The substantive with which the attributive participle (with the article) agrees directly, may be omitted, the participle thus becoming a substantive ( cross1153 b, and N. 1); as, ὁ οἴκαδε βουλόμενος ἀπιέναι whoever wants to go home X. A. 1.7.4. Neuter participles are often substantival, as τὰ δέοντα duties.

a. Substantives or relative clauses must often be used to translate such par

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ticiples, as ὁ φεύγων the exile or the defendant, τὸ μέλλον the future, οἱ νι_κῶντες the victors, ὁ κλέπτων the thief, οἱ θανόντες the dead, ὁ σωθείς the man who has been saved, οἱ δεδιότες those who are afraid, οἱ ἀδικούμενοι those who are (being) wronged, ὁ τὴν γνώμην ταύτην εἰπών the one who gave this opinion T. 8.68, ὁ ἐνταῦθ' ἑαυτὸν τάξα_ς τῆς πολι_τεία_ς εἴμ' ἐγώ the man who took this position in the State was I D. 18.62. The participle with the article may represent a relative clause of purpose or result, as X. A. 2.4.5 cited in 2044.


A participle may be modified by adjectives or take a genitive, when its verbal nature has ceased to be felt: τὰ μι_κρὰ συμφέροντα τῆς πόλεως the petty interests of the State D. 18.28. Cp. συμφέρον ἦν τῇ πόλει it was advantageous to the State 19. 75 (here the participle is used like a predicate). Thucydides often uses in an abstract sense a substantival neuter participle where the infinitive would be more common, e.g., τὸ δεδιός fear, τὸ θαρσοῦν courage (for τὸ δεδιέναι, τὸ θαρσεῖν) 1. 36. See cross1153 b, N. 2. In poetry many participles are used substantively, as ὁ τεκών father, ἡ τεκοῦσα mother, οἱ τεκόντες parents.


The article with the participle is either generic or particular ( cross1124). Thus, ὁ λέγων the definite speaker on a particular occasion, or orator in general. So ὁ οὐ δρά_σα_ς the definite person who did not do something, ὁ μὴ δρά_σα_ς any one who did not do something (a supposed case), ὁ μὴ γαμῶν ἄνθρωπος οὐκ ἔχει κακά the unmarried man has no troubles Men. Sent. 437. Generic are ὁ τυχών, ὁ βουλόμενος, 2050 a.

a. Participles having an indefinite force may, especially in the plural number, be used without the article. Thus, κατασκεψομένους ἔπεμπε he sent men to reconnoitre X. C. 3.1.2, ἀδικοῦντα πειρα_σόμεθα . . . ἀμύ_νασθαι we shall endeavour to avenge ourselves on any one who injures us X. A. 2.3.23.


A participle and its substantive often correspond to a verbal noun with the genitive or to an articular infinitive. Cp. post urbem conditam and Milton's “Since created man.”

τῷ σί_τῳ ἐπιλείποντι ἐπιέζοντο they suffered from the failure of the crops ( = τῇ τοῦ σί_του ἐπιλείψει) T. 3.20, δι' ὑ_μᾶς μὴ ξυμμαχήσαντας by reason of your not joining the alliance ( = διὰ τὸ ὑ_μᾶς μὴ ξυμμαχῆσαι) 6. 80, μετὰ Συρα_κούσα_ς οἰκισθείσα_ς after the foundation of Syracuse 6. 3, ἐλύ_πει αὐτὸν ἡ χώρα_ πορθουμένη the ravaging of the country grieved him X. A. 7.7.12, ἡ ὀργὴ σὺν τῷ φόβῳ λήγοντι ἄπεισι his wrath will disappear with the cessation of his fear X. C. 4.5.21.

a. Except in expressions of time, such as ἅμα ἦρι ἀρχομένῳ at the beginning of spring T. 2.2, ἐπὶ Κόδρου βασιλεύοντος in the reign of Codrus Lyc. 84 (cp. cross1689 b), this construction is in place only when the part. is necessary to the sense. In poetry: Ζεὺς γελοῖος ὀμνύμενος swearing by Zeus is ridiculous Ar. Nub. 1241; in Hom. A 601, I 682.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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