Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2048

The attributive and circumstantial participles are commonly not necessary to the construction; but the removal of a supplementary participle may make the construction incomplete. The circumstantial participle is used by way of apposition to the subject of the verb and, though strictly predicative, may agree attributively with a noun or pronoun. An attributive participle may be circumstantial, as οἱ μὴ δυνάμενοι διατελέσαι τὴν ὁδὸν ἐνυκτέρευσαν ἄσι_τοι those who (i.e. if any) were unable to complete the march passed the night without food X. A. 4.5.11. A participle may be both circumstantial and supplementary, as ἀδικούμενοι ὀργίζονται (T. 1.77) they are enraged at being wronged or because (when, if) they are wronged. Circumstantial and supplementary participles often cannot be sharply distinguished; as with verbs signifying to be angry, ashamed, content, pleased ( cross2100), inferior to, do wrong ( cross2101), endure ( cross2098), come and go ( cross2099). Thus, ἀδικῶ ταῦτα ποιῶν I do wrong in doing this or I am guilty in doing this: in the first case ταῦτα ποιῶν is appositive to the subject of the verb; in the second these words define the predicate adjective ἄδικος contained in ἀδικῶ ( = ἄδικός εἰμι).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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