The participle (μετοχή
The participle is like a verb herein:
a. It shows the distinctions of voice and tense. Its tenses mark action simply occurring, continuing, and completed.
b. It can have an object in the same case (genitive, dative, accusative) as the finite forms.
c. It is modified by adverbs, not by adjectives.
d. It may take ἄν, and, with that particle, represents ἄν with the indicative or ἄν with the optative ( cross1845 ff.).2041
The participle shows its adjectival nature by being inflected and by admitting the article before it, both of which characteristics give it the character of a noun. It follows the rules of agreement like other adjectives ( cross1020). Unlike the adjective, it represents a quality in action (cp. cross1857).2042
The participle is always used in connection with a substantive or a substantive pronoun, which may be contained in a verbal form, as διάγουσι μανθάνοντες
The tenses of the participle (except the future) not in indirect discourse are timeless, and denote only stage of action ( cross1872). When they stand in indirect discourse and represent the indicative, they denote time relatively to that of the main verb.2044
The future participle marks an action as in prospect at the time denoted by the leading verb. Since it expresses an idea of will, it shows that an action is purposed, intended, or expected. With the article it denotes the person or thing likely (or
ὁ δ' ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς λαγὼς ᾤχετο θηρά_σων
The negative of the participle is οὐ, except when the participle has a general or conditional force, or occurs in a sentence which requires μή. See cross2728.2046
The participle has three main uses.
A. Attributive: as an attributive to a substantive.
B. Circumstantial (or Adverbial): denoting some attendant circumstance and qualifying the main verb like an adverbial phrase or clause.
C. Supplementary: as a supplement to a verbal predicate, which, without such a supplement, would be incomplete.2047
The circumstantial and supplementary participles are predicate participles.2048
The attributive and circumstantial participles are commonly not necessary to the construction; but the removal of a supplementary participle may make the construction incomplete. The circumstantial participle is used by way of apposition to the subject of the verb and, though strictly predicative, may agree attributively with a noun or pronoun. An attributive participle may be circumstantial, as οἱ μὴ δυνάμενοι διατελέσαι τὴν ὁδὸν ἐνυκτέρευσαν ἄσι_τοι
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].