Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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(I) When the subjects are different individuals or things and stand in the third person


With two subjects in the singular, the verb may be dual or plural: Κριτία_ς καὶ Ἀλκιβιάδης ἐδυνάσθην ἐκείνῳ χρωμένω συμμάχῳ τῶν ἐπιθυ_μιῶν κρατεῖν Critias and Alcibiades were able to keep control of their appetites by the help

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of his example X. M. 1.2.24, Εὐρυμέδων καὶ Σοφοκλῆς ἀφικόμενοι ἐς Κέρκυ_ραν ἐστράτευσαν on their arrival in Corcyra Eurymedon and Sophocles proceeded to make an attack T. 4.46.


In Homer the verb may intervene between the subjects (Alcmanic Construction): εἰς Ἀχέροντα Πυριφλεγέθων τε ῥέουσιν Κώκυ_τός τε Pyriphlegethon and Cocytus flow into Acheron κ 513.


The verb may agree with the nearest or most important of two or more subjects. The verb may be placed

a. Before both subjects: ἧκε μὲν ὁ Θερσαγόρα_ς καὶ ὁ Ἐξήκεστος εἰς Λέσβον καὶ ᾤκουν ἐκεῖ Thersagoras and Execestus came to Lesbos and settled there D. 23.143.

b. After the first subject: ὅ τε Πολέμαρχος ἧκε καὶ Ἀδείμαντος καὶ Νικήρατος καὶ ἄλλοι τινές Polemarchus came and Adimantus and Niceratus and certain others P. R. 327b, Φαλῖνος ᾤχετο καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Phalinus and his companions departed X. A. 2.2.1.

c. After both subjects: τὸ βουλευτήριον καὶ ὁ δῆμος παρορᾶται the senate and the people are disregarded Aes. 3.250. (Cp. Shakesp. “my mistress and her sister stays.”)


(II) With several subjects referring to different persons the verb is in the plural; in the first person, if one of the subjects is first person; in the second person, if the subjects are second and third person: ὑ_μεῖς δὲ καὶ ἐγὼ τάδε λέγομεν but you and I say this P. L. 661b, ἡμεῖς καὶ οἵδε οὐκ ἄλλην ἄν τινα δυναίμεθα ᾠδὴν ᾄδειν we and these men could not sing any other song 666 d, οὐ σὺ μόνος οὐδὲ οἱ σοὶ φίλοι πρῶτοι ταύτην δόξαν ἔσχετε not you alone nor your friends are the first who have held this opinion 888 b.


But the verb may be singular if it refers to the nearer or more important or more emphatic subject: πάρειμι καὶ ἐγὼ καὶ οὗτος Φρυ_νίσκος καὶ Πολυκράτης. I am present and so are Phryniscus here and Polycrates X. A. 7.2.29.


The verb may agree in person with the nearer or more important subject: σύ τε γὰρ Ἕλλην εἶ καὶ ἡμεῖς for you are a Greek and so are we X. A. 2.1.16.


With subjects connected by the disjunctives or, ἤ—ἤ either—or, οὔτε—οὔτε neither—nor, the verb agrees in number with the nearer subject when each subject is taken by itself: οἴτε σὺ οὔτ' ἂν ἄλλος οὐδεὶς δύναιτ' ἀντειπεῖν neither you nor anybody else could reply X. M. 4.4.7.


When the subjects are taken together, the plural occurs: ἃ Δημοφῶν ἢ Θηριππίδης ἔχουσι τῶν ἐμῶν what Demophon or Therippides have of my property D. 27.12. This is unusual.


When than unites two subjects, if the verb follows , it agrees with the second subject: τύχη ἀεὶ βέλτι_ον ἣ ἡμεῖς ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιμελούμεθα fortune always takes better care of us than we do of ourselves D. 4.12.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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