Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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PERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION 1982

Instead of an impersonal passive verb with the accusative and infinitive as subject, Greek often uses the personal passive construction, the accusative becoming the nominative, subject to the leading verb.

Thus, Κῦρος ἠγγέλθη νι_κῆσαι Cyrus was reported to have conquered instead of

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ἠγγέλθη Κῦρον νι_κῆσαι it was reported that Cyrus had conquered, and δίκαιός εἰμι ἀπελθεῖν I am justified in going away instead of δίκαιόν ἐστιν ἐμὲ ἀπελθεῖν it is right for me to go away. English sometimes has to use the impersonal construction in place of the Greek personal construction (cp. cross2107).

a. The personal construction is more common with λέγεται, ἀγγέλλεται, ὁμολογεῖται and other passive verbs of saying (regular with passive verbs of thinking); with συμβαίνει it happens; with ἀναγκαῖος necessary, ἄξιος worthy, δίκαιος just, δυνατός possible, ἐπιτήδειος fit, etc., followed by a form of εἶναι, instead of ἀναγκαῖον, ἄξιον, etc. Thus, ὁ Ἀσσύριος εἰς τὴν χώρα_ν αὐτοῦ ἐμβαλεῖν ἀγγέλλεται the Assyrian is reported to be about to make an incursion into his country X. C. 5.3.30, πολλή τις ἀλογία_ ξυμβαίνει γίγνεσθαι much absurdity would result P. Phil. 55a, δίκαιος εἶ εἰπεῖν it is right for you to speak P. S. 214c, τὴν αἰτία_ν οὗτός ἐστι δίκαιος ἔχειν it is right for him to bear the blame D. 18.4. Both constructions together: σοὶ γὰρ δὴ λέγεται πάνυ γε τεθεραπεῦσθαι ὁ Ἀπόλλων, καί σε πάντα ἐκείνῳ πειθόμενον πρἀ_ττειν for Apollo is said to have been greatly served by you, and (it is said) that you do everything in obedience to him X. C. 7.2.15. Cp. cross2104.

N.—δῆλός ἐστι and φανερός ἐστι take ὅτι or the participle ( cross2107); δῆλόν ἐστι and φανερόν ἐστι take ὅτι, not the infinitive.

1983

The personal constructions δοκῶ, ἔοικα ( cross2089 c), δέω are regular instead of δοκεῖ, ἔοικε it seems, δεῖ it lacks (much or little). So with φαίνομαι for φαίνεται.

δοκῶ γάρ μοι ἄδυνατος εἶναι for I seem to be unable P. R. 368b, δοκοῦμέν μοι καθῆσθαι it seems to me that we are encamped X. A. 1.3.12, νῦν γε ἡμῶν ἔοικας βασιλεὺς εἶναι now at least you seem to be our king X. C. 1.4.6, πολλοῦ δέω ἐγὼ ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι I am far from speaking in my own defence P. A. 30d, μι_κροῦ ἐδέησεν Κύπρον ἅπα_σαν κατασχεῖν he almost (lacked a little) occupied the whole of Cyprus I. 9.62, εὖ σὺ λέγειν φαίνει you seem to speak well Ar. Nub. 403.

a. δοκεῖ μοί τινα ἐλθεῖν for δοκεῖ τίς μοι ἐλθεῖν it seems to me that some one came is very rare. δοκεῖ meaning it seems good, it is decreed always takes the infinitive ( cross1984, cross1991). δοκῶ believe has the construction of 1992 c. Cp. cross1998.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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