The perfect denotes a completed action the effects of which still continue in the present: τὰ οἰκήματα ᾠκοδόμηται
a. The effects of a completed action are seen in the resulting present state. The state may be that of the subject or of the object:
ἐφοβήθην, καὶ ἔτι καὶ νῦν τεθορύβημαι
Perfect with Present Meaning.—When the perfect marks the enduring result rather than the completed act, it may often be translated by the present.
Thus, κέκλημαι (have received a name)
a. These perfecta praesentia do not in nature differ from other perfects.1947
‘Intensive’ Perfect.—Many perfects seem to denote an action rather than a state resulting from an action, and to be equivalent to strengthened presents. These are often called
Such are: verbs of the senses (δέδορκα
a. But most if not all of the verbs in question may be regarded as true perfects, i.e. they denote a mental or physical state resulting from the accomplishment of the action; thus, πέφρι_κα
b. Certain verbs tend to appear in the perfect for emphasis: τέθνηκα
Empiric Perfect.—The perfect may set forth a general truth expressly based on a fact of experience:
ἡ ἀταξία_ πολλοὺς ἤδη ἀπολώλεκεν
Perfect of Dated Past Action.—The perfect is sometimes used of a past action whose time is specifically stated:
Perfect for Future Perfect.—The perfect may be used vividly for the future perfect to anticipate an action not yet done: κἂ_ν τοῦτο νι_κῶμεν, πάνθ' ἡμῖν πεποίηται
a. Especially with the phrase τὸ ἐπί τινι, the perfect anticipates the certain occurrence of an event:
τὸ ἐπὶ τούτῳ ἀπολώλαμεν
In subordinate clauses, the action of the perfect is usually (a) contemporaneous, but may be (b) antecedent to that of the main verb. The context alone decides in which sense the perfect is to be taken. (a) οἱ δὲ θεράποντες, ἐπειδὴ ἐς ἀντίπαλα καθεστήκαμεν, αὐτομολοῦσι
On the epistolary perfect see cross1942 a.
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].