The future denotes an action that will take place at some future time:
λήψεται μισθὸν τάλαντον
a. The action is future according to the opinion, expectation, hope, fear, or purpose of the speaker or the agent.
b. The action of the future is either continuative (like the present) or, like that of the aorist, expresses simple attainment. Thus πείσω means
When a verb has two futures, that formed from the same stem as the present is properly continuative, that formed from the aorist stem marks simple attainment: thus, ἕξω
The future represents both our shall and will. When voluntative (
οὐ δὴ ποιήσω τοῦτο
ἡ βουλὴ μέλλει αἱρεῖσθαι ὅστις ἐρεῖ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀποθανοῦσι
a. In many cases the use of the future indicates that the wish remains unchanged; and there is no reference to a future act. Sometimes the future appears to be a more modest form of statement than the present.1914
Gnomic Future.—The future may express a general truth: ἀνὴρ ἐπιεικὴς υἱὸν ἀπολέσα_ς ῥᾷστα οἴσει τῶν ἄλλων
a. Hdt. uses the future in descriptions of customs and in directions to travellers (1. 173, 2. cross29).1915
Future for Present.—The future may be used instead of the present of that which is possible at the moment of speaking:
εὑρήσομεν τοὺς φιλοτί_μους τῶν ἀνδρῶν . . . ἀντὶ τοῦ ζῆν ἀποθνῄσκειν εὐκλεῶς αἱρουμένους
a. The future may denote present intention:
αἶρε πλῆκτρον, εἰ μαχεῖ
Deliberative Future.—The future is often used in deliberative questions: τί ἐροῦμεν ἢ τί φήσομεν;
a. The deliberative future may occur in connection with the deliberative subjunctive ( cross1805): εἴπωμεν ἢ σι_γῶμεν; ἢ τί δρά_σομεν;
Jussive Future.—The future may express a command, like the imperative; and, in the second person, may denote concession or
permission. The negative is οὐ. The tone of the jussive future (which is post-Homeric) is generally familiar.
ὣς οὖν ποιήσετε
σπουδὴ ἔσται τῆς ὁδοῦ
The future with οὐ interrogative is used in questions in an imperative sense to express urgency, warning, or irony: οὐκ ἔξιμεν . . . οὐκ ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκείνου πλευσόμεθα; shall we not go forth . . . shall we not set sail against his country?
a. μή with the future in a prohibitive sense is used in a few suspected passages (
οὐ μή with the second person singular of the future in the dramatic poets denotes a strong prohibition; as οὐ μὴ διατρί_ψεις
τοὺς πονηροὺς οὐ μή ποτε βελτί_ους ποιήσετε
ὅπως and ὅπως μή are used with the future in urgent exhortations and prohibitions:
ὅπως οὖν ἔσεσθε ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς
ὅπως τοίνυν περὶ τοῦ πολέμου μηδὲν ἐρεῖς
ὅπως μή (negative ὅπως μὴ οὐ) may express the desire to avert something; as ὅπως μὴ αἰσχροὶ φαινούμεθα
On ἄν (κέ) with the future indicative, see cross1793. On the periphrastic future see cross1959; on the future in dependent clauses, see cross2203, cross2211, 2220 a, 2229, 2231, 2328, 2549-2551, 2554, 2558, 2559, 2565 a, 2573 c.
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].