Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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ὑπό (Hom. also ὑπαί, Lesbian ὐπα-), under, by, Lat. sub.

1. ὑπό with the Genitive

a. Local (rare in Attic prose): out from under (poet., cp. ὑπέκ): ῥέει κρήνη ὑπὸ σπείους a spring flows out from a cave ι 140, λαβὼν βοῦν ὑπὸ ἁμάξης taking an ox from a wagon X. A. 6.4.25; under (of rest): τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς (a fixed phrase) ἅπαντα all things under the earth P. A. 18b.

b. Other relations (metaphorically under the agency of): Direct agent (with passives and with verbs having a passive force); contrast διά, 1685. 2. d: σωθέντες ὑπὸ σοῦ saved by you X. A. 2.5.14, αἰσθόμενος ὑπ' αὐτομόλων informed by deserters T. 5.2, εὖ ἀκούειν ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων to be well spoken of by men X. A. 7.7.23. With passive nouns: ἡ ὑπὸ Μελήτου γραφή the indictment brought by Meletus X. M. 4.4.4, κλῆσις ὑπὸ τῆς βουλῆς invitation by the Senate D. 19.32. External cause: ἀπώλετο ὑπὸ λι_μοῦ perished of hunger X. A. 1.5.5, οὐκ ἐπὶ πολὺ ὑπὸ τῶν ἰππέων ἐξιόντες not going out far because of the cavalry T. 6.37. Internal cause: ὑπὸ τῶν μεγίστων νι_κηθέντες, τι_μῆς καὶ δέους καὶ ὠφελία_ς constrained by the strongest motives, honour and fear and profit T. 1.76. External accompaniment, as pressure, in ἐτόξευον ὑπὸ μαστί_γων they shot under the lash X. A. 3.4.25; sound, in ὑπὸ αὐλητῶν to the accompaniment of flute-players T. 5.70; light, in ὑπὸ φα_νοῦ πορεύεσθαι to go with a torch X. R. L. 5.7. Manner: ὑπὸ σπουδῆς hastily T. 3.33.

N. 1.—ὑπό with the genitive of a thing personifies the thing. The things so personified are (1) words implying a person, as λόγοι, (2) external circumstances, as συμφορά_, κίνδυ_νος, νόμος, (3) natural phenomena, as χειμών, (4) emotions, as φθόνος. The dative may also be employed. See cross1493, cross1494.

N. 2.—On ὑπό to express the personal agent with the perf. pass. see cross1493.

2. ὑπό with the Dative

a. Local: under (of rest): ἑστάναι ὑπό τινι δένδρῳ to stand under a tree P. Phil. 38c. ὑπό of place is more common with the dative than with the genitive.

b. Other relations: Agent (poetic, except with verbs signifying to educate): ὑπὸ παιδοτρίβῃ ἀγαθῷ πεπαιδευμένος educated under (the guidance of) a good master P. Lach. 184e. Coöperative cause (poet.): βῆ ὑπ' ἀμύ_μονι πομπῇ he went under a blameless convoy Z 171. Subjection: οί ὑπὸ βασιλεῖ ὄντες the subjects of (i.e. those under) the king X. C. 8.1.6, ὑφ' αὑτῷ ποιήσασθαι to bring under his own power D. 18.40.

3. ὑπό with the Accusative

a. Local: Motion under: ὑπ' αὐτὸν (τὸν λόφον) στήσα_ς τὸ στράτευμα halting the army under the hill X. A. 1.10.14. Motion down under (poet.): εἶμ' ὑπὸ γαῖαν I shall go down under the earth Σ 333. Extension or position: αἱ

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ὑπὸ τὸ ὄρος κῶμαι the villages at the foot of the mountain X. A. 7.4.5. Proximity: ὑποκειμένη ἡ Εὔβοια ὑπὸ τὴν Ἀττικήν Euboea lying close by (under) Attica I. 4.108.

b. Temporal (of time impending or in progress): ὑπὸ νύκτα at the approach of night (sub noctem) T. 2.92, ὑπὸ νύκτα during the night Hdt. 9.58, ὑπὸ τὴν εἰρήνην at the time of the peace I. 4.177.

c. Other relations. Subjection: ὑπὸ σφᾶς ποιεῖσθαι to bring under their own sway T. 4.60.

4. ὑπό in Composition

Under (ὑποτιθέναι place under), behind (ὑπολείπειν leave behind), secretly (cp. underhand; ὑποπέμπειν send as a spy), gradually (ὑποκαταβαίνειν descend by degrees), slightly (ὑποφαίνειν shine a little); of accompaniment (ὑπᾴδειν accompany with the voice); of an action performed by another (ὑποκηρύ_ττεσθαι have oneself proclaimed by the herald).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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