Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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1696σύν

σύν (Older Attic ξύν; cp. Ion. ξυ_νός from κονιος κοινός, Lat. cum) with.

1. σύν with the Instrumental Dative only.

a. In standard (i.e. not Xenophontic) prose σύν has been almost driven out of use by μετά. It is used (1) in old formulas, as σὺν (τοῖς) θεοῖς with the help of the gods, σὺν (τοῖς) ὅπλοις in arms, etc. (of things attached to a person), σὺν νῷ intelligently; (2) of sum totals (along with, including), as

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σὺν τοῖς ἔργοις πλέον ἢ δέκα τάλαντα ἔχει he has more than ten talents interest included D. 28.13.

b. σύν is usually poetic (rare in comedy) and Xenophontic; it is often used in the formulas of a (1) and of persons and things personified. Its older and poetic meaning is along with (of something secondary or added to the action) and with the help of. So in Xen.: together with, along with: σὺν τῆ γυναικὶ δειπνεῖν to sup with your wife X. C. 6.1.49; to reinforce the simple dative: ἀκολουθεῖν σύν τινι, πορεύεσθαι σύν τινι ( cross1524); with the collateral notion of help: with the aid of, as σὺν ἐκείνῳ μάχεσθαι to fight with his help X. C. 5.3.5.

c. Means and Instrument (regarded as accompaniments of an action: the comitative instrumental): ἡ κτῆσις αὐτῶν ἔστιν οὐδαμῶς σὺν τῇ βίᾳ, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον σὺν τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ they (friends) are acquired, not by forcible means, but by kindness X. C. 8.7.13.

d. Manner: σὺν γέλωτι ἦλθον they went laughing X. A. 1.2.18. In conformity with (opp. to παρά): οὐκ ἐπέτρεψε τῷ δήμῳ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ψηφίσασθαι, ἀλλὰ σὺν τοῖς νόμοις ἠναντιώθη κτλ. he did not permit the people to vote contrary to the laws, but, in conformity with them, opposed himself, etc. X. M. 4.4.2.

2. σύν in Composition

Together with (συμβιοῦν live with, συμπορεύεσθαι march in company with), together (συμβάλλειν conicere), completely (συμπληροῦν fill up), contraction in size (συντέμνειν cut short), and generally of union or connection. Standard prose uses συν- freely.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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