Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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ἀμφί (cp. ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος, Lat. ambi-, amb-, am-) originally

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on both sides (either externally only, or inside and outside), hence about. Cp. the use of περί ( cross1693) throughout. Chiefly poetic, Ionic, and Xenophontic. In Attic prose chiefly with the accusative.

1. ἀμφί with the Genitive

Local (very rare and doubtful): οἱ ἀμφὶ ταύτης οἰκέοντες τῆς πόλιος dwellers round about this city Hdt. 8.104 (only here). Cause: about, concerning: ἀμφὶ σῆς λέγω παιδός I speak about thy child E. Hec. 580, ἀμφὶ ὧν εἶχον διαφερόμενοι quarrelling about what they had X. A. 4.5.17.

2. ἀμφί with the Dative

Local: ἀμφ' ὤμοισιν ἔχει σάκος he has a shield about his shoulders Λ 527. Cause: φοβηθεὶς ἀμφὶ τῇ γυναικί afraid on account of his wife Hdt. 6.62, ἀμφὶ φόβῳ by reason of (encompassed by) terror E. Or. 825; Means: ἀμφὶ σοφίᾳwith the environment of poetic art’ Pind. P. 1. 12. Often in Pindar.

3. ἀμφί with the Accusative

Local: ἀμφὶ Μί_λητον about Miletus X. A. 1.2.3, ἔδραμον ἀμφ' Ἀχιλῆα they ran around Achilles Σ 30; temporal: ἀμφὶ δείλην towards evening X. A. 2.2.14. Number: ἀμφὶ τούς δισχι_λίους about two thousand 1. 2. 9; of occupation with an object: ἀμφὶ δεῖπνον εἶχεν he was busy about dinner X. C. 5.5.44.

a. οἱ ἀμφί τινα the attendants, followers of a person, or the person himself with his attendants, etc.: ἀνὴρ τῶν ἀμφὶ Κῦρον πιστῶν one of the trusty adherents of Cyrus X. A. 1.8.1, οἱ ἀμφὶ Χειρίσοφον Chirisophus and his men 4. 3. 21, οἱ ἀμφὶ Πρωταγόρα_ν the school of Protagoras P. Th. 170c. This last phrase contains the only use of ἀμφί in Attic prose outside of Xenophon.

4. ἀμφί in Composition

Around, about' ἀμφιβάλλειν throw around (on both sides), ἀμφιλέγειν dispute (speak on both sides).

1682 ἀνά

ἀνά (Lesb. ὀν, Lat. an- in anhelare, Eng. on): originally up to, up (opposed to κατά). Cp. ἄνω.

1. ἀνά with the Dative

Local only (Epic, Lyric, and in tragic choruses): ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ upon a staff A 15.

2. ἀνά with the Accusative

Up along; over, through, among (of horizontal motion). Usually avoided by Attic prose writers except Xenophon (three times in the orators).

a. Local: To a higher point: ἀνὰ τὸν ποταμόν up stream Hdt. 1.194 (cp. κατὰ τὸν ποταμόν). Extension: ἀνὰ στρατόν through the camp A 10, ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν over the whole earth X. Ag. 11. 16, βασιλῆας ἀνὰ στόμ' ἔχων having kings in thy mouth B 250 (cp. διὰ στόματος ἔχειν).

b. Extension in Time: ἀνὰ νύκτα through the night Ξ 80. See c.

c. Other relations: Distributively: ἀνὰ ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας by hundreds X. A. 3.4.21, ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἡμέρα_ν daily X. C. 1.2.8. Manner: ἀνὰ κράτος with all their might (up to their strength) X. A. 1.10.15 (better Attic κατὰ κράτος), ἀνὰ λόγον proportionately P. Ph. 110d.

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3. ἀνά in Composition

Up (ἀνίστασθαι stand up, ἀναστρέφειν turn upside down), back (ἀναχωρεῖν go back, ἀναμιμνῄσκειν remind), again (ἀναπνεῖν breathe again, ἀναπειρᾶσθαι practise constantly), often with a reversing force force (ἀναλύ_ειν unlcose).

1683 ἀντί

ἀντί: originally in the face of, opposite to; cp. ἄντα, ἐναντίος, Lat. ante (with meaning influenced by post), Germ. Antwort, ‘reply.’

1. ἀντί with the Genitive only

Local: ἀνθ' ὧν ἑστηκότες standing opposite to (from the point of view of the speaker, i.e. behind) which (pine-trees) X. A. 4.7.6. In other meanings: Instead of, for, as an equivalent to: ἀντὶ πολέμου εἰρήνη peace instead of war T. 4.20, τὰ παρ' ἐμοὶ ἑλέσθαι ἀντὶ τῶν οἴκοι to prefer what I have to offer you here instead of what you have left at home X. A. 1.7.4, τὴν τελευτὴν ἀντὶ τῆς τῶν ζώντων σωτηρία_ς ἠλλάξαντο they exchanged death for the safety of the living P. Menex. 237a; in return for, hence ἀνθ' ὅτου wherefore S. El. 585; for πρός in entreaty: σ' ἀντὶ παίδων τῶνδε ἱκετεύομεν we entreat thee by these children here S. O. C. 1326.

2. ἀντί in Composition

Instead, in return (ἀντιδιδόναι give in return), against, in opposition to (ἀντιλέγειν speak against).

1684 ἀπό

ἀπό (Lesb. etc. ἀπύ) from, off, away from; originally of separation and departure. Cp. Lat. ab, Eng. off, of.

1. ἀπό with the Genitive only

a. Local: καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἵππου leaping down from his horse X. A. 1.8.28, ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου he used to hunt (from a horse) on horseback 1. 2. 7, ἀπὸ θαλάσσης at a distance from the sea T. 1.7. Figuratively: ἀπὸ θεῶν ἀρχόμενοι beginning with the gods X. A. 6.3.18.

b. Temporal: ἀφ' ἑσπέρα_ς after evening began (after sundown) X. A. 6.3.23, ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου on the same signal 2. 5. 32, ἀπὸ τῶν σί_των after meals X. R. L. 5.8, ἀφ' οὗ since.

c. Other relations: (1) Origin, Source: in prose of more remote ancestry: τοὺς μὲν ἀπὸ θεῶν, τοὺς δ' ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν θεῶν γεγονότας some descended (remotely) from gods, others begotten (directly) of the gods themselves I. 12.81. (This distinction is not always observed.) Various other relations may be explained as source.

(2) Author: as agent with passives and intransitives, when an action is done indirectly, through the influence of the agent (ὑπό of the direct action of the agent himself). Not common, except in Thuc. (chiefly with πρἀ_ττεσθαι, λέγεσθαι, and verbs of like meaning): ἐπρά_χθη ἀπ' αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ἔργον nothing was done under their rule T. 1.17. The startingpoint of an action is often emphasized rather than the agent: ἀπὸ πολλῶν καὶ πρὸς πολλοὺς λόγοι γιγνόμενοι speeches made by many and to many T. 8.93.

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(3) Cause (remote): ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ τολμήματος ἐπῃνέθη he was praised in consequence of this bold deed T. 2.25, ταῦτα οὐκ ἀπὸ τύχης ἐγίγνετο, ἀλλ' ἀπὸ παρασκευῆς τῆς ἐμῆς this happened not from chance but by reason of the preparations I made L. 21.10.

(4) Means, Instrument: στράτευμα συνέλεξεν ἀπὸ χρημάτων he raised an army by means of money X. A. 1.1.9; rarely of persons: ἀπ' αὐτῶν βλάψαι to do injury by means of them T. 7.29.

(5) Manner: ἀπὸ τοῦ προφανοῦς openly T. 1.66.

(6) Conformity: ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου on a basis of equality T. 3.10, ἀπὸ ξυμμαχία_ς αὐτόνομοι independent by virtue of (according to) an alliance 7. 57.

N.—ἀπό with gen. is sometimes preferred to the simple gen., often for emphasis: οἱ λόγοι ἀφ' ὑ_μῶν the words that proceed from you T. 6.40, ὀλίγοι ἀπὸ πολλῶν a few of the many 1. 110 (cp. cross1317 a). Thuc. has many free uses of ἀπό.

2. ἀπό in Composition

From, away, off (ἀπιέναι go away, ἀποτειχίζειν wall off), in return, back (ἀποδιδόναι give back what is due, ἀπαιτεῖν demand what is one's right). Separation involves completion (hence ἀπανα_λίσκειν utterly consume, ἀποθύ_ειν pay off a vow), or privation and negation (ἀπαγορεύειν forbid, ἀποτυγχάνειν miss). Often almost equivalent to an intensive (ἀποφάναι speak out, ἀποδεικνύναι point out, ἀποτολμᾶν dare without reserve).

1685 διά

διά (Lesb. ζά) through, originally through and out of, and apart (separation by cleavage), a force seen in comp. (cp. Lat. dis-, Germ. zwi-schen).

1. διά with the Genitive

a. Local: through and out of (cp. Hom. διέκ, διαπρό), as δι' ὤμου ἔγχος ἦλθεν the spear went clear through his shoulder Δ 481, ἀκοῦσαι διὰ τέλους to listen from beginning to end Lyc. 16. Through, but not out of: διὰ πολεμία_ς (γῆς) πορεύεσθαι to march through the enemy's country X. Hi. 2.8 and often in figurative expressions: διὰ χειρὸς ἔχειν to control T. 2.13, διὰ στόματος ἔχειν to have in one's mouth (be always talking of) X. C. 1.4.25 (also ἀνὰ στόμα).

b. Temporal: of uninterrupted duration, as διὰ νυκτός through the night X. A. 4.6.22, διὰ παντός constantly T. 2.49.

c. Intervals of Space or Time: διὰ δέκα ἐπάλξεων at intervals of ten battlements T. 3.21, διὰ χρόνου after an interval L. 1.12, intermittently Aes. 3.220, διὰ πολλοῦ at a long distance T. 3.94.

d. Other relations: Means, Mediation (per): αὐτὸς δι' ἑαυτοῦ ipse per se D. 48.15, διὰ τούτου γράμματα πέμψα_ς sending a letter by this man Aes. 3.162. State or feeling: with εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, ἔχειν, of a property or quality: διὰ φόβου εἰσί they are afraid T. 6.34, δι' ἡσυχία_ς εἶχεν he kept in quiet 2. 22, ἐλθεῖν ἡμῖν διὰ μάχης to meet us in battle 2. 11, αὐτοῖς διὰ φιλία_ς ἰέναι to enter into friendship with them X. A. 3.2.8. Manner: διὰ ταχέων quickly T. 4.8.

2. διά with the Accusative

a. Local: of space traversed, through, over (Epic, Lyric, tragic choruses): διὰ δώματα through the halls A 600; διὰ νύκτα Θ 510 is quasi-temporal.

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b. Cause: owing to, thanks to, on account of, in consequence of (cp. propter, ob): διὰ τοὺς θεοὺς ἐσῳζόμην I was saved thanks to the gods D. 18.249, τι_μώμενος μὴ δι' ἑαυτόν, ὰλλὰ διὰ δόξαν προγόνων honoured, not for himself, but on account of the renown of his ancestors P. Menex. 247b. So in εἰ μὴ διά τινα (τι) had it not been for in statements of an (unsurmounted) obstacle: φαίνονται κρατήσαντες ἂν τῶν βασιλέως πρα_γμάτων, εἰ μὴ διὰ Κῦρον it seems they would have got the better of the power of the king, had it not been for Cyrus I. 5.92.

c. διά is rarely used (in place of ἕνεκα) to denote a purpose or object: διὰ τὴν σφετέρα_ν δόξαν for the sake of their honour T. 2.89, δι' ἐπήρειαν for spite D. 39.32 (cp. διὰ νόσον ἕνεκα ὑγιεία_ς on account of disease in order to gain health P. Lys. 218e).

d. διά with gen. is used of direct, διά with accus. of indirect, agency (fault, merit, of a person, thing, or situation). διά with gen. is used of an agent employed to bring about an intended result; διά with accus. is used of a person, thing, or state beyond our control (accidental agency). (1) Persons: ἔπρα_ξαν ταῦτα δι' Εὐρυμάχου they effected this by the mediation of Eurymachus T. 2.2, τὰ διὰ τούτους ἀπολωλότα what has been lost by (the fault of) these men D. 6.34. The accus. marks a person as an agent not as an instrument. (2) Things: νόμοι, δι' ὧν ἐλευθέριος ὁ βίος παρασκευασθήσεται laws, by means of which a life of freedom will be provided X. C. 3.3.52, διὰ τοὺς νόμους βελτί_ους γιγνόμενοι ἄνθρωποι men become better thanks to the laws 8. 1. 22. Sometimes there is little difference between the two cases: δι' ὧν ἅπαντ' ἀπώλετο D. 18.33, δι' οὓς ἅπαντ' ἀπώλετο 18. 35.

N.—διά with gen. ( = through) is distinguished from the simple dative ( = by): δι' οὗ ὁρῶμεν καὶ ᾧ ἀκούομεν P. Th. 184c.

e. For διά with accus. to express the reason for an action, the dative is sometimes used ( cross1517): τοῖς πεπρα_γμένοις φοβούμενος τοὺς Ἀθηναίους fearing the Athenians by reason of what had happened T. 3.98. The dative specifies the reason less definitely than διά with the accusative.

f. When used in the same sentence, the dative may express the immediate, διά with the accus. the remoter, cause: ἀσθενείᾳ σωμάτων διὰ τὴν σι_τοδεία_ν ὑπεχώρουν they gave ground from the fact that they were weak through lack of food T. 4.36.

g. διά with accus. contrasted with ὑπό with gen.: φήσομεν αὐτὸ δι' ἐκεῖνα ὑπὸ τῆς αὑτοῦ κακία_ς ἀπολωλέναι we shall say that it (the body) is destroyed on account of those (remoter) causes (as badness of food) by its own evil (immediately) P. R. 609e.

3. διά in Composition

Through, across,over (διαβαίνειν cross),apart, asunder (διακόπτειν cut in two, διακρί_νειν discernere, διαφέρειν differ, διαζυγνύναι disjoin), severally (διαδιδόναι distribute).

δια- often denotes intensity, continuance, or fulfilment (διαμένειν remain to the end, διαφθείρειν destroy completely). δια- is common in the reciprocal middle ( cross1726), as in διαλέγεσθαι converse; often of rivalry (οἱ διαπολι_τευόμενοι rival statesmen, διακοντίζεσθαι contend in throwing the javelin).

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1686 εἰς, ἐς

εἰς, ἐς into, to, opposed to ἐξ; from ἐν ς (cp. Lat. abs from ab + s). See on ἐν. On εἰς with the genitive by ellipsis, see cross1302.

1. εἰς with the Accusative only

In the Old Attic alphabet (2 a), generally used in Attica in the fifth century, ΕΣ was written, and this may be either εἰς or ἐς. In the fourth century ΕΙΣ was generally written. In Thuc. ἐς is printed, but its correctness may be doubted; other Attic prose writers use εἰς, the poets εἰς or (less frequently) ἐς. It is not true that in poetry ἐς is used only before consonants, εἰς only before vowels.

a. Local: of the goal: Σικελοὶ ἐξ Ἰταλία_ς διέβησαν ἐς Σικελία_ν the Sicels crossedover out of Italy into Sicily T. 6.2; with a personal object: ἦλθεν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσία_ς ἐς ἀνθρώπους ἀπόρους he came from Asia to (a land of) poor men T. 1.9, ἐσπέμπει γράμματα ἐς (v. l. πρὸς) βασιλέα_ he dispatches a letter to (the palace of) the king 1. 137 (of sending, etc., to individuals ὡς or πρός is used); against: ἐστράτευσαν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικήν they invaded Attica T. 3.1, πόλεμος τοῖς Κορινθίοις ἐς τοὺς Ἀθηναίους war between the Corinthians and the Athenians 1. 55; with verbs of rest, 1659 b. The idea of motion holds where Eng. uses in or at: τελευτᾶν εἴς τι to end in T. 2.51. Extension: Πελοποννησίους διαβαλεῖν ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας to raise a prejudice against the Peloponnesians among the Greeks T. 3.109; in the presence of (coram): ἐς τὸ κοινὸν λέγειν to speak before the assembly 4. 58.

b. Temporal: of the goal: up to, until: ἐς ἐμέ up to my time Hdt. 1.52, ἐς τέλος finally 3. 40; at (by) such a time (of a fixed or expected time): προεῖπε εἰς τρίτην ἡμέρα_ν παρεῖναι commanded them to be present on the third day X. C. 3.1.42, ἥκετε εἰς τρια_κοστὴν ἡμέρα_ν come on the thirtieth day 5. 3. 6. Limit of time attained: εἰς τοιοῦτον καιρὸν ἀφι_γμένοι arriving at such a time L. 16.5. Extension (over future time): εἰς τὸν λοιπὸν χρόνον in all future time L. 16.2.

c. Measure and Limit with numerals: εἰς χι_λίους to the number of (up to) a thousand X. A. 1.8.5, εἰς δύο two abreast 2. 4. 26, ἐς δραχμήν to the amount of a drachma T. 8.29.

d. Other relations: Goal, Purpose, Intention: ἡ σὴ πατρὶς εἰς σὲ ἀποβλέπει your country looks for help to you X. H. 6.1.8, χρῆσθαι εἰς τὰ_ς σφενδόνα_ς to use for the slings X. A. 3.4.17, παιδεύειν εἰς ἀρετήν to train with a view to virtue P. G. 519e. Relation to: καλὸν εἰς στρατιά_ν excellent for the army X. C. 3.3.6, often in Thuc. ( = πρός with accus.). Manner: εἰς καιρόν in season X. C. 3.1.8, εἰς δύναμιν to the extent of one's powers 4. 5. 52.

2. εἰς in Composition

Into, in, to (εἰσβαίνειν enter, εἰσπρά_ττειν get in, exact a debt).

1687 ἐν

ἐν in (poetic ἐνί, εἰν, εἰνί), Lat. in with the abl., en-; opposed to εἰς into, ἐξ out of. On ἐν with the genitive by ellipsis, see cross1302.

1. ἐν with the Dative (Locative) only

a. Local: in, at, near, by, on, among: ἐν Σπάρτῃ in Sparta T. 1.128, ἡ ἐν Κορίνθῳ μάχη the battle at Corinth X. Ages. 7.5, πόλις οἰκουμένη ἐν τῷ Εὐξείνῳ πόντῳ a city built on the Euxine X. A. 4.8.22, ἐν τῇ κλί_νῃ ἑστηκώς

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standing upon the bed L. 1.24 (ἐν of superposition is rare), νόμοι ἐν πᾶσιν εὐδόκιμοι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν laws famous among all the Greeks P. L. 631b, ἐν ὑ_μῖν ἐδημηγόρησεν he made an harangue before (coram) you D. 8.74. With verbs of motion, see cross1659 a. Of circumstance, occupation, as οἱ ἐν τοῖς πρά_γμασιν the men at the head of affairs D. 9.56 (so ἐν εἰρήνῃ, ἔργῳ, ὠφελείᾳ, φιλοσοφίᾳ, φόβῳ εἶναι; ἐν αἰτίᾳ ἔχειν to blame, ἐν ὀργῇ ἔχειν to be angry with); in the power of: ἐν τῷ θεῷ τὸ τέλος ἦν, οὐκ ἐμοί the issue rested with God, not with me D. 18.193, ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἐγένετο he came to himself X. A. 1.5.17.

b. Temporal: in, within, during (cp. cross1542): ἐν πέντε ἔτεσιν in five years L. 19.29, ἐν σπονδαῖς during a truce T. 1.55, ἐν ᾧ while.

c. Instrument, Means, Cause, Manner (originally local): ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδωμαι see with the eyes A 587, ἐν ἑνὶ κινδυ_νεύεσθαι to be endangered by (i.e. to depend on) a single person T. 2.35, ἐν τούτοις ἢ λυ_πούμενοι ἢ χαίροντες either grieving or rejoicing at this P. R. 603c, ἐν τούτῳ δηλῶσαι to make clear by this 392 e, ἐν τῷ φανερῷ openly X. A. 1.3.21. Conformity: ἐν τοῖς ὁμοίοις νόμοις ποιήσαντες τὰ_ς κρίσεις deciding according to equal laws T. 1.77, ἐν ἐμοί in my opinion E. Hipp. 1320.

N.—In many dialects, e.g. those north of the Corinthian Gulf (rarely in Pindar), ἐν retains its original meaning of in (with dat.) and into (with accus.). The latter use appears in ἐνδέξια towards the right.

2. ἐν in Composition

In, at, on, among (ἐμπί_πτειν fall in or on, ἐντυγχάνειν fall in with, ἐγγελᾶν laugh at, ἐνάπτειν bind on).

1688 ἐξ, ἐκ

ἐξ, ἐκ out, out of, from, from within, opposed to ἐν, εἰς; cp. Lat. ex, e. As contrasted with ἀπό away from, ἐξ denotes from within.

1. ἐξ, ἐκ with the (Ablatival) Genitive only

In Arcadian and Cyprian ἐς ( = ἐξ) takes the dative.

a. Local: ἐκ Φοινί_κης ἐλαύνων marching out of Phoenicia X. A. 1.7.12; of transition: ἐκ πλείονος ἔφευγον they fled when at (from) a greater distance 1. 10. 11. On ἐξ in the constructio praegnans, see cross1660 a.

b. Temporal: ἐκ τοῦ ἀ_ρίστου after breakfast X. A. 4.6.21, ἐκ παίδων from boyhood 4. 6. 14.

c. Other relations: immediate succession or transition: ἄλλην ἐξ ἄλλης πόλεως ἀμειβόμενος exchanging one city for another P. A. 37d, ἐκ πολέμου ποιούμενος εἰρήνην making peace after (a state of) war D. 19.133, ἐκ πτωχῶν πλούσιοι γίγνονται from beggars they become rich 8. 66. Origin: immediate origin (whereas ἀπό is used of remote origin, 1684. 1. c): ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθῶν noble and of noble breed P. Phae. 246a. Agent, regarded as the source: with pass. and intr. verbs instead of ὑπδ (chiefly poetic and in Hdt.): πόλεις ἐκ βασιλέως δεδομέναι cities a gift (having been given) of (by) the king X. A. 1.1.6, ὡμολογεῖτο ἐκ πάντων it was agreed by all T. 2.49; but ἐκ is often used with a different force, as ἐκ τῶν τυχόντων ἀνθρώπων συνοικισθῆναι to have been settled by the vulgar (as constituent parts of a whole) Lyc. 62. Consequence: ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἔργου in consequence of the fact itself T. 1.75. Cause or ground of judgment (where the dat, is more usual with inanimate

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objects): ἐξ οὗ διέβαλλεν αὐτόν for which reason he accused him X. A. 6.6.11. Material: τὸ ἄγκιστρον ἐξ ἀδάμαντος the hook of adamant P. R. 616c. Instrument and means: ἐκ τῶν πόνων τὰ_ς ἀρετὰ_ς κτᾶσθαι to acquire by labour the fruits of virtue T. 1.123. Conformity: ἐκ τῶν νόμων in accordance with the laws D. 24.28. Manner (rare): ἐκ τοῦ ἴσου on equal terms T. 2.3. Partitive (cp. cross1317 a): ἐκ τῶν δυναμένων εἰσί they belong to the class that has power P. G. 525e.

2. ἐξ, ἐκ in Composition

Out, from, off, away (cp. ἐξελαύνειν drive out and away); often with an implication of fulfilment, completion, thoroughness, resolution (ἐκπέρθειν sack utterly, ἐκδιδάσκειν teach thoroughly). Cp. cross1648.


ἐπί (cp. Lat. ob) upon, on, on the surface of; opposed to ὑπό under, and to ὑπέρ when ὑπέρ means above the surface of.

1. ἐπί with the Genitive

a. Local: upon: οὔτ' ἐπὶ γῆς οὔθ' ὑπὸ γῆς neither upon the earth nor under the earth P. Menex. 246d, ἐπὶ θρόνου ἐκαθέζετο he seated himself on a throne X. C. 6.1.6; of the vehicle (lit. or figur.) upon which: ἐπὶ τῶν ἵππων ὀχεῖσθαι to ride on horseback 4. 5. 58 (never ἐπί with dat.), ἐπὶ τῆς ἐμῆς νεώς on my ship L. 21.6; in the direction of: ἐπὶ Σάρδεων ἔφευγε he fled toward Sardis X. C. 7.2.1; in the presence of (cp. παρά with dat.): ἐπὶ μαρτύρων before witnesses Ant. 2. γ. 8. ἐπί is rarely used of mere proximity in poetry or standard prose.

N.—In expressions of simple superposition ἐπί with the gen. denotes familiar relations and natural position; whereas ἐπί with the dat. gives clear and emphatic outlines to statements of the definite place of an object or action, is used in detailed pictures, and marks the object in the dative as distinct from the subject of the verbal action. ἐπί with the gen. is colourless and phraseological, and often makes, with the verb or the subject, a compound picture. Even in contrasting two objects ἐπί with gen. is used since no special point is made of position. With (unemphatic) pronouns of reference (αὐτοῦ) ἐπί with gen. is much more frequent than ἐπί with dat. The distinction between the two cases is often the result of feeling; and certain phrases become stereotyped, now with the gen., now with the dat.

b. Temporal, usually with personal gen.: in the time of: ἐπὶ τῶν προγόνων in the time of our ancestors Aes. 3.178, ἐπ' ἐμοῦ in my time T. 7.86, ἐπὶ τοῦ Δεκελεικου' πολέμου in the Decelean war D. 22.15.

c. Other relations: μενεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνοία_ς τῆς αὐτῆς to persist in the same folly D. 8.14, ἃ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁρᾶτε, ταῦτ' ἐφ' ὑ_μῶν αὐτῶν ἀγνοεῖτε what you see in the case of others, that you ignore in your own case I. 8.114, ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν ἐχώρουν they proceeded by themselves X. A. 2.4.10, ἐπὶ τεττάρων four deep 1. 2. 15, οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτων the men in power D. 18.247.

2. ἐπί with the Dative

a. Local: on, by: οἰκοῦσιν ἐπὶ τῷ ἰσθμῷ they dwell on the isthmus T. 1.56, τὸ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ τεῖχος the wall by the sea 7. 4. The dat. with ἐπί denotes proxim

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ity much more frequently than the gen. with ἐπί; but denotes superposition less often than the gen. with ἐπί.

b. Temporal (rare in prose): ἦν ἥλιος ἐπὶ δυσμαῖς the sun was near setting X. A. 7.3.34.

c. Other relations: Succession, Addition: τὸ ἐπὶ τούτῳ γ' ἀπόκρι_ναι answer the next question P. A. 27b, ἀνέστη ἐπ' αὐτῷ he rose up after him X. C. 2.3.7, ἐπὶ τῷ σί_τῳ ὄψον relish with bread X. M. 3.14.2. Supervision: ἄρχων ἐπὶ τούτοις ἦν there was a commander over them X. C. 5.3.56. Dependence: καθ' ὅσον ἐστὶν ἐπ' ἐμοί as far as is in my power I. 6.8. Condition: ἐφ' οἷς τὴν εἰρήνην ἐποιησάμεθα on what terms we made the peace D. 8.5. Reason, motive, end, as with verbs of emotion (instead of the simple dative, cross1517): πάντα ταῦτα θαυμάζω ἐπὶ τῷ κάλλει I am astonished at all these trees because of their beauty X. O. 4.21, οὐκ ἐπὶ τέχνῃ ἔμαθες ἀλλ' ἐπὶ παιδείᾳ you learned this not to make it a profession but to gain general culture P. Pr. 312b. Hostility (less common in prose than in poetry; usually with accus.): ἡ ἐπὶ τῷ Μήδῳ ξυμμαχία_ the alliance against the Medes T. 3.63. Price: ἐπὶ πόσῳ; for how much? P. A. 41a.

3. ἐπί with the Accusative

a. Local: of the goal: ἐξελαύνει ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν he marches to the river X. A. 1.4.11, ἀφί_κοντο ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν they arrived at the river 4. 7. 18 (rarely the gen. with verbs of arrival), ἀνέβαινεν ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον he mounted his horse X. C. 7.1.1. Extension: ἐπὶ πᾶσαν Ἀσία_ν ἐλλόγιμοι famous over all Asia P. Criti. 112e.

b. Temporal: extension: ἐπὶ πολλὰ_ς ἡμέρα_ς for many days D. 21.41.

c. Quantity, measure: ἐπὶ μι_κρόν a little, ἐπὶ πλέον still more, ἐπὶ πᾶν in general, πλάτος ἔχων πλεῖον ἢ ἐπὶ δύο στάδια wider than (up to) two stades X. C. 7.5.8.

d. Other relations: Purpose, object in view: πέμπειν ἐπὶ κατασκοπήν to send for the purpose of reconnoitering X. C. 6.2.9, ἀπέστειλαν ἐπὶ χρήματα they sent for money T. 6.74. Hostility: ἔπλεον ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους they sailed against the Athenians 2. 90. Reference: τὸ ἐπ' ἐμέ (with or without εἶναι) as far as I am concerned (more commonly ἐπ' ἐμοί); τό γε ἐπ' ἐκεῖνον εἶναι L. 13.58.

N.—To express purpose ἐπί with accus. is generally used when the purpose involves actual or implied motion to an object; ἐπί with dat. is used when the purpose may be attained by mental activity.

4. ἐπί in Composition

Upon (ἐπιγράφειν write upon), over (ἐπιπλεῖν sail over), at, of cause (ἐπιχαίρειν rejoice over or at), to, toward (ἐπιβοηθεῖν send assistance to), in addition (ἐπιδιδόναι give in addition), against (ἐπιβουλεύειν plot against), after (ἐπιγίγνεσθαι be born after, ἐπισκευάζειν repair); causative (ἐπαληθεύειν verify); intensity (ἐπικρύπτειν hide; ἐπιβουλεύεσθαι further deliberate = reflect); reciprocity (ἐπιμείγνυσθαι ἀλλήλοις exchange friendly dealings).


κατά down (cp. κάτω), opposed to ἀνά. With the genitive (the genitive proper (of the goal) and the ablatival genitive) and the

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accusative. With the genitive, the motion is perpendicular; with the accusative, horizontal.

1. κατά with the Genitive

a. Local: down from, down toward, under: ἁλάμενοι κατὰ τῆς πέτρα_ς having leapt down from the rock X. A. 4.2.17, κατ' ἄκρα_ς utterly, completely (down from the summit) P. L. 909b, ψυ_χὴ κατὰ χθονὸς ᾤχετο his soul went down under the earth Ψ 100, μύρον κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς καταχέαντες having poured myrrh (down) over their heads P. R. 398a; rarely of rest: ὁ κατὰ γῆς the man under the earth X. C. 4.6.5.

b. Temporal (very rare): κατὰ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος for all eternity Lyc. 7.

c. Other relations: against, as κατ' ἐμαυτοῦ ἐρεῖν to speak against myself P. A. 37b; rarely in a favourable or neutral sense, as οἱ κατὰ Δημοσθένους ἔπαινοι the eulogies on Demosthenes Aes. 3.50, κατὰ πάντων λέγειν to speak with regard to all X. C. 1.2.16; by (with verbs of swearing), as ὀμνύντων τὸν ὅρκον κατὰ ἱερῶν τελείων let them swear the oath by (lit. down over) fullgrown victims T. 5.47.

2. κατά with the Accusative

a. Local: ἔπλεον κατὰ ποταμόν they sailed down-stream Hdt. 4.44, κατὰ τὰ_ς εἰσόδους ἐφεπόμενοι following to the entrances X. C. 3.3.64. Extension: καθ' ὅλην τὴν πόλιν throughout the entire city Lyc. 40, κατὰ γῆν by land L. 2.32, διώκοντες τοὺς καθ' αὑτούς pursuing those stationed opposite themselves X. A. 1.10.4.

b. Temporal (post-Homeric): κατὰ πλοῦν during the voyage T. 3.32, κατ' ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον at that time 1. 139, οἱ καθ' ἑαυτόν his contemporaries D. 20.73.

c. Other relations: Purpose: κατὰ θέα_ν ἧκεν came for the purpose of seeing T. 6.31. Conformity: κατὰ τούτους ῥήτωρ an orator after their style P. A. 17b, κατὰ τοὺς νόμους according to the laws D. 8.2. Ground on which an act is based: κατὰ φιλία_ν owing to friendship T. 1.60. Comparisons: μείζω ἢ κατὰ δάκρυα πεπονθότες having endured sufferings too great for (than according to) tears 7. 75 (cp. maior quam pro). Manner: καθ' ἡσυχία_ν quietly T. 6.64. Distribution: κατ' ἔθνη nation by nation T. 1.122, δέκα δραχμαὶ κατ' ἄνδρα ten drachmae the man Aes. 3.187, κατὰ σφᾶς αὐτούς per se T. 1.79. Approximate numbers: κατὰ πεντήκοντα about fifty Hdt. 6.79.

3. κατά in Composition

Down from above (καταπί_πτειν fall down), back (καταλείπειν leave behind), against, adversely (καταγιγνώσκειν condemn, decide against, καταφρονεῖν despise), completely (καταπετροῦν stone to death, κατεσθίειν eat up), often with an intensive force that cannot be translated. An intransitive verb when compounded with κατά may become transitive ( cross1559).


μετά: original meaning amid, among (cp. Germ. mit, Eng. mid in midwife). Hence properly only with plurals or collectives (so in Hom. with gen. and dat.). μετά denotes participation, community of action. πεδά (Lesb. and other dialects) agrees in meaning with μετά, but is of different origin.

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1. μετά with the Genitive

Usually of persons and abstract nouns.

Local: among, together with, as καθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων sitting among the rest P. R. 359e, θῦσαι μετ' ἐκείνων to sacrifice in company with them X. C. 8.3.1; on the side of, as οἱ μετὰ Κύ_ρου βάρβαροι the barbarians in the army of Cyrus X. A. 1.7.10, μετὰ τῶν ἠδικημένων πολεμεῖν to wage war on the side of the wronged D. 9.24, οὐ μετὰ τοῦ πλήθους without the consent of the people T. 3.66; besides: γενόμενος μετὰ τοῦ ξυνετοῦ καὶ δυνατός showing himself powerful as well as sagacious T. 2.15. Accompanying circumstances (concurrent act or state): μετὰκινδύ_νων κτησάμενοι (τὴν τάξιν) having acquired their position amid dangers D. 3.36, λύ_πη μετὰ φόβου grief and terror T. 7.75. Joint efficient cause: μετὰ πόνων ἐλευθέρα_ν ἐποίησαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα by (amid) struggles they freed Greece L. 2.55. Conformity: μετὰ τῶν νόμων in accordance with the laws 3. 82.

2. μετά with the Dative (Locative)

Chiefly Epic (usually with the plural or with the collective singular of persons or things personified, or of the parts of living objects): μετὰ μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπεν he spake amid the suitors ρ 467, μετὰ φρεσί in their hearts Δ 245.

3. μετά with the Accusative

Local: into the midst of: νεκροὺς ἔρυσαν μετὰ λα_ὸν Ἀχαιῶν they dragged the dead into the midst of the host of the Achaeans E 573; with an idea of purpose: ἰέναι μετὰ Νέστορα to go after (in quest of) Nestor K 73. Extension over the midst of: μετὰ πληθύ_ν throughout the multitude B 143. Phrase: μετὰ χεῖρας ἔχειν to have in hand T. 1.138.

N.—From the use in μετ' ἴχνια βαῖνε θεοῖο he went after the steps of the goddess γ 30 is derived the prose use: after (of time or rank), as μετὰ τὰ Τρωϊκά after the Trojan war T. 2.68, μετὰ θεοὺς ψυ_χὴ θειότατον after the gods the soul is most divine P. L. 726. The range of μετά with acc. in Attic prose is not wide.

4. μετά in Composition

Among (μεταδιδόναι give a share), after, in quest of (μεταπέμπεσθαι send for). When one thing is among other things, it may be said to come after another, to succeed or alternate with it; hence of succession (μεθημερινός diurnus; cp. μεθ' ἡμέρα_ν after daybreak), alteration or change (μεταγράφειν rewrite, μεταμέλειν repent i.e. care for something else).

When contrasted with σύν, μετά often denotes participation: ὁ μέτοχος the partner, ὁ συνών the companion. σύν often denotes something added. But μετά is usually the prose preposition for σύν, though it does not mean inclusive of.


παρά (Hom. παραί, Lat. por- in porrigere) alongside, by, near. Except with the accusative παρά is commonly used of persons and personified things.

1. παρά with the (Ablatival) Genitive

Usually coming or proceeding from a person, in Hom. also of things; cp. de chez.

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a. Local: οἱ αὐτομολοῦντες παρὰ βασιλέως the deserters from the king X. A. 2.1.6. In poetry, where we might expect the dat. ( cross1659 a): ἔγρετο παρ' Ἥρης lit. he awoke from the side of Hera O 5. In standard Attic prose παρά with the gen. of a thing is excessively rare. When so used, the thing is personified, or the thing implies a person (as πόλις, ἀρχή, θέα_τρον).

b. Author, Source (cp. cross1410): with verbs of receiving, taking, asking, learning, sending, etc.: παρὰ Μήδων τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐλάμβανον Πέρσαι the Persians wrested the empire from the Medes X. A. 3.4.8, παρὰ σοῦ ἐμάθομεν we learned from you X. C. 2.2.6; ἡ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν εὔνοια the good-will on the part of the gods D. 2.1 (less commonly ἀπό); with passives and intransitives (instead of ὑπό with the gen. of the agent): τὰ παρὰ τῆς τύχης δωρηθέντα the gifts of Fortune I. 4.26, τοῦτο παρὰ πάντων ὁμολογεῖται this is acknowledged on all sides (on the part of all) L. 30.12.

2. παρά with the Dative

Almost always of persons in standard Attic prose; cp. chez.

a. Local: οὐ παρὰ μητρὶ σι_τοῦνται οι' παῖδες, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τῷ διδασκάλῳ the boys do not eat with their mothers, but with their teachers X. C. 1.2.8, παρ' ἐμοί σκηνοῦν to mess with me (as chez moi) 6. 1. 49; of things: τὰ παρὰ θαλάττη χωρία the places along the sea X. A. 7.2.25.

b. Other relations: Possessor: τὸ μὲν χρυ_σίον παρὰ τούτῳ, οἱ δὲ κίνδυ_νοι παρ' ὑ_μῖν this man has the gold, you the dangers Aes. 3.240; of the superior in command: οἱ παρὰ βασιλεῖ ὄντες those under the king X. A. 1.5.16; of the person judging: ἀναίτιος παρὰ τοῖς στρατιώταις blameless in the opinion of the troops X. C. 1.6.10, ὁμολογεῖται παρὰ τῷ δήμῳ it is agreed in the opinion of the people Lyc. 54 (here παρά denotes the sphere of judgment); with the gen. after a passive ( cross1692. 1. b) it denotes the source.

3. παρά with the Accusative

a. Local: of motion to, in prose only of persons: ἧκε παρ' ἐμέ come to me X. C. 4.5.25; motion along, by, past (a place): παρὰ γῆν πλεῖν sail along shore T. 6.13; of parallel extent (along, alongside, beside) with verbs of motion and of rest (often the dat.), and often when no verb is used: ἥνπερ ἔλαβον ναῦν, ἀνέθεσαν παρὰ τὸ τροπαῖον the ship they captured they set up alongside of the trophy T. 2.92, εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ' ἑαυτόν he told him to remain close by him X. C. 1.4.18, τὸ πεδίον τὸ παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν the plain extending along the river X. A. 4.3.1, ἦν παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν κρήνη there was a spring by the road 1. 2. 13. Contrary to: παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ἢ κατ' αὐτούς contrary to (i.e. going past) the laws or in accordance with them D. 23.20; in addition to (along beside): ἔχω παρὰ ταῦτα ἄλλο τι λέγειν besides this I have to say something else P. Ph. 107a. Phrase: παρ' ὀλίγον ἐποιοῦντο Κλέανδρον they treated Cleander as of no account (cp. ‘next to nothing’) X. A. 6.6.11.

b. Temporal: (duration) παρὰ πάντα τὸν χρόνον throughout the whole time D. 5.2, (momentary) παρὰ τὰ δεινά in the hour of danger Aes. 3.170, παρ' αὐτὰ τἀ_δικήματα at the time of (i.e. immediately after) the offences themselves D. 18.13.

c. Other relations: Cause = διά: παρὰ τὴν ἡμετέρα_ν ἀμέλειαν in consequence of our negligence D. 4.11, εἰ παρὰ τὸ προαισθέσθαι κεκώλυ_ται if it was prevented by being perceived in advance 19. 42. Dependence: παρὰ τοῦτο γέγονε τὰ

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τῶν Ἑλλήνων the fortunes of the Greeks depend on this D. 18.232. Measure: παρὰ μι_κρὸν ἤλθομεν ἐξανδραποδισθῆναι we had a narrow escape (came by a little) from being enslaved I. 7.6, παρὰ πολύ by far T. 2.8. Comparison: ἐξέτασον παρ' ἄλληλα contrast with each other D. 18.265, χειμὼν μείζων παρὰ τὴν καθεστηκυῖαν ὥρα_ν stormy weather more severe than was to be expected at the season then present T. 4.6.

4. παρά in Composition

Alongside, by, beside (παριέναι go alongside), beyond, past (παρελαύνειν drive past), over (παρορᾶν overlook), aside, amiss (παρακούειν misunderstand).


περί around (on all sides), about; cp. πέριξ round about. Lat. per in permagnus. περί is wider than ἀμφί: cp. X. Vect. 1.7 οὐ πεοίρρυτος οὖσα ὥσπερ νῆσος . . . ἀμφιθάλαττος γάρ ἐστι it (Attica) is not, like an island, surrounded by the sea . . . for it has the sea on two sides. On περί post-positive, see cross1665.

1. περί with the Genitive

a. Local (poetic): περὶ τρόπιος βεβαώς riding on (astride) the keel ε 130.

b. Other relations: about, concerning (Lat. de), the subject about which an act or thought centres: περὶ πατρίδος μαχούμενοι fighting for their country T. 6.69 (cp. ὑπέρ), δείσα_ς περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ fearing for his son X. C. 1.4.22, λέγειν περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης to speak about peace T. 5.55; τὰ περί τινος instead of τὰ περί τινα is used in the neighbourhood of a verb of saying or thinking (which takes περί with gen.): τὰ περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς the relations of virtue P. Pr. 360e. Superiority (cp. cross1402): περίεσσι γυναικῶν εἶδος thou dost surpass women in beauty ς 248, περὶ παντὸς ποιούμενοι regarding as (more than everything) all-important T. 2.11 (cp. cross1373).

2. περί with the Dative

a. Local: about: of arms, dress, etc., in prose: στρεπτοὶ περὶ τοῖς τραχήλοις collars about their necks X. A. 1.5.8, ἃ περὶ τοῖς σώμασιν ἔχουσιν the clothes about their persons I. ep. 9. 10 (only case in the orators), περὶ δουρί A 303.

b. Other relations (usually poetic): External cause: δείσαντες περὶ ταῖς ναυσίν afraid for their ships T. 7.53 (with verbs of fearing, περί with the gen. is fear of or fear for). Inner impulse: περὶ τάρβει from fear A. Pers. 694.

3. περί with the Accusative

a. Local: of position: ἀπέστειλαν ναῦς περὶ Πελοπόννησον they despatched ships round about Peloponnese T. 2.23, ᾤκουν περὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Σικελία_ν they settled all round Sicily 6. 2; of persons: οἱ περὶ Ἡρἁ_κλειτον the followers of Heraclitus P. Crat. 440c.

b. Indefinite statement of time and number: περὶ ὄρθρον about dawn T. 6.101, περὶ ἑβδομήκοντα about seventy 1. 54.

c. Other relations: Occupation: οἱ περὶ τὴν μουσικὴν ὄντες those who are engaged in liberal pursuits I. 9.4; connected with, of general relation (with reference to): οἱ νόμοι οἱ περὶ τοὺς γάμους the laws about marriage P. Cr. 50d, περὶ θεοὺς ἀσεβέστατοι most impious in regard to the gods X. H. 2.3.53, τὰ περὶ τὰ_ς ναῦς naval affairs T. 1.13. Verbs of action (except verbs of

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striving) prefer περί with accus., verbs of perception, emotion, knowing, prefer περί with gen. But the cases often shift.

4. περί in Composition

Around, about (περιέχειν surround), beyond, over (περιεῖναι excel; and περιορᾶν look beyond, overlook, suffer), (remaining) over (περιγίγνεσθαι remain over, result, and excel), exceedingly (περιχαρής very glad).


πρό (Lat. pro, for) before. Cp. ἀντί, which is narrower in meaning.

1. πρό with the Genitive only

a. Local: πρὸ τῶν ἁμαξῶν in front of the wagons X. C. 6.2.36.

b. Temporal: πρὸ τῆς μάχης before the battle X. A. 1.7.13.

c. Other relations: Defence or care (cp. ὑπέρ): διακινδυ_νευειν πρὸ βασιλέως to incur danger in defence of (prop. in front of) the king X. C. 8.8.4. Preference (cp. ἀντί): οἱ ἐπαινοῦντες πρὸ δικαιοσύνης ἀδικία_ν those who laud injustice in preference to justice P. R. 361e, πρὸ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαι to esteem highly (in preference to much) I. 5.138, φωνεῖν πρὸ τῶνδε to speak for them (as their spokesman) S. O. T. 10 (ἀντὶ τῶνδε = as their deputy, ὑπὲρ τῶνδε as their champion).

2. πρό in Composition

Before, forward, forth (προβάλλειν put forward), for, in behalf of, in defence of, in public (προαγορεύειν give public notice), beforehand (πρόδηλος manifest beforehand), in preference (προαιρεῖσθαι choose in preference).


πρός (Hom. also προτί), at, by (fronting). Of like meaning, but of different origin, is Hom. ποτί.

1. πρός with the Genitive

a. Local (not common in prose): τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέρα_ς τεῖχος the wall facing the west X. H. 4.4.18, τὰ ὑποζύγια ἔχοντες πρὸς τοῦ ποταμοῦ having the pack-animals on the side toward the river X. A. 2.2.4.

b. Other relations: Descent: πρὸς πατρός on the father's side Aes. 3.169. Characteristic: οὐ γὰρ ἦν πρὸς τοῦ Κύ_ρου τρόπου for it was not the way of Cyrus X. A. 1.2.11. Point of view of a person: πρὸς ἀνθρώπων αἰσχρός base in the eyes of men 2. 5. 20. Agent as the source, with passive verbs (instead of ὑπό): ὁμολογεῖται πρὸς πάντων it is agreed by all 1. 9. 20; to the advantage of; σπονδὰ_ς ποιησάμενος πρὸς Θηβαίων μᾶλλον ἢ πρὸς ἑαυτ ῶν making a truce more to the advantage of the Thebans than of his own party X. H. 7.1.17; in oaths and entreaties: πρὸς θεῶν by the gods X. H. 2.4.21.

2. πρός with the Dative

In a local sense, denoting proximity (generally, in prose, of towns or buildings, not of persons): πρὸς τῇ πόλει τὴν μάχην ποιεῖσθαι to fight near the city T. 6.49; sometimes like ἐν, as πρὸς ἱεροῖς τοῖς κοινοῖς ἀνατεθῆναι to be dedicated in the common shrines T. 3.57. Occupation: ἦν ὅλος πρὸς τῷ λήμματι he was wholly intent upon his gain D. 19.127. In addition to: πρὸς αὐτοῖς besides these T. 7.57. In the presence of: πρὸς τῷ διαιτητῆ λέγειν to speak before the arbitrator D. 39.22.

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3. πρός with the Accusative

a. Local (direction toward or to, strictly fronting, facing): ὑ_μᾶς ἄξομεν πρὸς αὐτούς we will lead you to them X. A. 7.6.6, πρὸς νότον (toward the) south T. 3.6, ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους to go against the enemy X. A. 2.6.10.

b. Temporal (rare): πρὸς ἡμέρα_ν toward daybreak X. H. 2.4.6.

c. Other relations: friendly or hostile relation: πρὸς ἐμὲ λέγετε speak to me X. C. 6.4.19, φιλία_ πρὸς ὑ_μᾶς friendship with you I. 5.32, ἔχθρα_ πρὸς τοὺς Ἀργείους enmity to the Argives T. 2.68, but ἡ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἔχθρα_ our enmity 6. 80, ἡ ἀπέχθεια πρὸς τοὺς Θηβαίους our enmity to the Thebans and the enmity of the Thebans to us D. 18.36. With words of hating, accusing, and their opposites, πρός is used either of the subject or of the object or of both parties involved. With words denoting warfare πρός indicates a double relation, and the context must determine which party is the aggressor or assailant: ναυμαχία_ Κορινθίων πρὸς Κερκυ_ραίους a sea-fight between the Corinthians and the Corcyreans T. 1.13 (here καί often suffices, as ὁ Λακεδαιμονίων καὶ Ἠλείων πόλεμος X. H. 3.2.31). Relation in general: οὐδὲν αὐτῷ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐστίν he has nothing to do with the city D. 21.44, πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς εὐσεβῶς ἔχειν to be pious toward the gods Lyc. 15. Purpose: πρὸς τί; to what end? X. C. 6.3.20, πρὸς χάριν λέγειν to speak in order to court favour D. 4.51; with a view to (often nearly = διά): πρὸς ταῦτα βουλεύεσθε εὖ wherefore be well advised T. 4.87, πρὸς τὰ παρόντα in consequence of the present circumstances 6. 41. Conformity: πρὸς τὴν ἀξία_ν according to merit X. C. 8.4.29. Standard of judgment: οὐδὲ πρὸς ἀργύριον τὴν εὐδαιμονία_ν ἔκρι_νον nor did they estimate happiness by the money-standard I. 4.76, χώρα_ ὡς πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πολι_τῶν ἐλαχίστη a territory very small in proportion to the number of its citizens 4. 107; and hence of comparison: οί φαυλότεροι τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τοὺς ξυνετωτέρους . . . ἄμεινον οἰκοῦσι τὰ_ς πόλεις the simpler class of men, in comparison with the more astute, manage their public affairs better T. 3.37. Exchange: ἡδονὰ_ς πρὸς ἡδονὰ_ς καταλλάττεσθαι to exchange pleasures for pleasures P. Ph. 69a.

4. πρός in Composition

To, toward (προσελαύνειν drive to, προστρέπειν turn toward), in addition (προσλαμβάνειν take in addition), against (προσκρούειν strike against, be angry with). Often in the general sense of additionally, qualifying the whole sentence rather than the verb.


σύν (Older Attic ξύν; cp. Ion. ξυ_νός from κονιος κοινός, Lat. cum) with.

1. σύν with the Instrumental Dative only.

a. In standard (i.e. not Xenophontic) prose σύν has been almost driven out of use by μετά. It is used (1) in old formulas, as σὺν (τοῖς) θεοῖς with the help of the gods, σὺν (τοῖς) ὅπλοις in arms, etc. (of things attached to a person), σὺν νῷ intelligently; (2) of sum totals (along with, including), as

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σὺν τοῖς ἔργοις πλέον ἢ δέκα τάλαντα ἔχει he has more than ten talents interest included D. 28.13.

b. σύν is usually poetic (rare in comedy) and Xenophontic; it is often used in the formulas of a (1) and of persons and things personified. Its older and poetic meaning is along with (of something secondary or added to the action) and with the help of. So in Xen.: together with, along with: σὺν τῆ γυναικὶ δειπνεῖν to sup with your wife X. C. 6.1.49; to reinforce the simple dative: ἀκολουθεῖν σύν τινι, πορεύεσθαι σύν τινι ( cross1524); with the collateral notion of help: with the aid of, as σὺν ἐκείνῳ μάχεσθαι to fight with his help X. C. 5.3.5.

c. Means and Instrument (regarded as accompaniments of an action: the comitative instrumental): ἡ κτῆσις αὐτῶν ἔστιν οὐδαμῶς σὺν τῇ βίᾳ, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον σὺν τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ they (friends) are acquired, not by forcible means, but by kindness X. C. 8.7.13.

d. Manner: σὺν γέλωτι ἦλθον they went laughing X. A. 1.2.18. In conformity with (opp. to παρά): οὐκ ἐπέτρεψε τῷ δήμῳ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ψηφίσασθαι, ἀλλὰ σὺν τοῖς νόμοις ἠναντιώθη κτλ. he did not permit the people to vote contrary to the laws, but, in conformity with them, opposed himself, etc. X. M. 4.4.2.

2. σύν in Composition

Together with (συμβιοῦν live with, συμπορεύεσθαι march in company with), together (συμβάλλειν conicere), completely (συμπληροῦν fill up), contraction in size (συντέμνειν cut short), and generally of union or connection. Standard prose uses συν- freely.


ὑπέρ (Hom. also ὑπείρ) over, Lat. super. For the contrast with ἐπί, see cross1689.

1. ὑπέρ with the Genitive

a. Local: from over: ὑπὲρ τῶν ἄκρων κατέβαινον they came down over the heights T. 4.25; over, abover: ὑπὲρ τῆς κώμης γήλοφος ἦν above the village was a hill X. A. 1.10.12.

b. Other relations: in defence of, on behalf of: μαχόμενος ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν fighting for you (standing over to protect) P. L. 642c; in place of, in the name of: ἐγὼ λέξω καὶ ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν I will speak both for you and for ourselves X. C. 3.3.14. Purpose: ὑπὲρ τοῦ ταῦτα λαβεῖν in order to get this D. 8.44; concerning, about (often = περί in Demos. and the later orators; in inscr. after 300 B. C.): φόβος ὑπὲρ τοῦ μέλλοντος fear for the future T. 7.71, μὴ περὶ τῶν δικαίων μηδ' ὑπὲρ τῶν ἔξω πρα_γμάτων not about your just claims nor about your foreign interests D. 6.35.

2. ὑπέρ with the Accusative

a. Local: ὑπὲρ οὐδὸν ἐβήσετο he passed over the threshold ν 63, οἱ ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήσποντον οἰκοῦντες those who dwell beyond the Hellespont X. A. 1.1.9.

b. Temporal ( = πρό) rare: ὑπὲρ τὰ Μηδικά before the Persian wars T. 1.41.

c. Measure: ὑπὲρ ἥμισυ more than half X. C. 3.3.47, ὑπὲρ ἄνθρωπον beyond the power of man P. L. 839d.

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3. ὑπέρ in Composition

Over, above (ὑπερβάλλειν cross over,ὑπερέχειν trans. hold over, intr. be above), in behalf of, for (ὑπερμαχεῖν poet. fight for), exceedingly (ὑπερφρονεῖν be over-proud).


ὑπό (Hom. also ὑπαί, Lesbian ὐπα-), under, by, Lat. sub.

1. ὑπό with the Genitive

a. Local (rare in Attic prose): out from under (poet., cp. ὑπέκ): ῥέει κρήνη ὑπὸ σπείους a spring flows out from a cave ι 140, λαβὼν βοῦν ὑπὸ ἁμάξης taking an ox from a wagon X. A. 6.4.25; under (of rest): τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς (a fixed phrase) ἅπαντα all things under the earth P. A. 18b.

b. Other relations (metaphorically under the agency of): Direct agent (with passives and with verbs having a passive force); contrast διά, 1685. 2. d: σωθέντες ὑπὸ σοῦ saved by you X. A. 2.5.14, αἰσθόμενος ὑπ' αὐτομόλων informed by deserters T. 5.2, εὖ ἀκούειν ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων to be well spoken of by men X. A. 7.7.23. With passive nouns: ἡ ὑπὸ Μελήτου γραφή the indictment brought by Meletus X. M. 4.4.4, κλῆσις ὑπὸ τῆς βουλῆς invitation by the Senate D. 19.32. External cause: ἀπώλετο ὑπὸ λι_μοῦ perished of hunger X. A. 1.5.5, οὐκ ἐπὶ πολὺ ὑπὸ τῶν ἰππέων ἐξιόντες not going out far because of the cavalry T. 6.37. Internal cause: ὑπὸ τῶν μεγίστων νι_κηθέντες, τι_μῆς καὶ δέους καὶ ὠφελία_ς constrained by the strongest motives, honour and fear and profit T. 1.76. External accompaniment, as pressure, in ἐτόξευον ὑπὸ μαστί_γων they shot under the lash X. A. 3.4.25; sound, in ὑπὸ αὐλητῶν to the accompaniment of flute-players T. 5.70; light, in ὑπὸ φα_νοῦ πορεύεσθαι to go with a torch X. R. L. 5.7. Manner: ὑπὸ σπουδῆς hastily T. 3.33.

N. 1.—ὑπό with the genitive of a thing personifies the thing. The things so personified are (1) words implying a person, as λόγοι, (2) external circumstances, as συμφορά_, κίνδυ_νος, νόμος, (3) natural phenomena, as χειμών, (4) emotions, as φθόνος. The dative may also be employed. See cross1493, cross1494.

N. 2.—On ὑπό to express the personal agent with the perf. pass. see cross1493.

2. ὑπό with the Dative

a. Local: under (of rest): ἑστάναι ὑπό τινι δένδρῳ to stand under a tree P. Phil. 38c. ὑπό of place is more common with the dative than with the genitive.

b. Other relations: Agent (poetic, except with verbs signifying to educate): ὑπὸ παιδοτρίβῃ ἀγαθῷ πεπαιδευμένος educated under (the guidance of) a good master P. Lach. 184e. Coöperative cause (poet.): βῆ ὑπ' ἀμύ_μονι πομπῇ he went under a blameless convoy Z 171. Subjection: οί ὑπὸ βασιλεῖ ὄντες the subjects of (i.e. those under) the king X. C. 8.1.6, ὑφ' αὑτῷ ποιήσασθαι to bring under his own power D. 18.40.

3. ὑπό with the Accusative

a. Local: Motion under: ὑπ' αὐτὸν (τὸν λόφον) στήσα_ς τὸ στράτευμα halting the army under the hill X. A. 1.10.14. Motion down under (poet.): εἶμ' ὑπὸ γαῖαν I shall go down under the earth Σ 333. Extension or position: αἱ

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ὑπὸ τὸ ὄρος κῶμαι the villages at the foot of the mountain X. A. 7.4.5. Proximity: ὑποκειμένη ἡ Εὔβοια ὑπὸ τὴν Ἀττικήν Euboea lying close by (under) Attica I. 4.108.

b. Temporal (of time impending or in progress): ὑπὸ νύκτα at the approach of night (sub noctem) T. 2.92, ὑπὸ νύκτα during the night Hdt. 9.58, ὑπὸ τὴν εἰρήνην at the time of the peace I. 4.177.

c. Other relations. Subjection: ὑπὸ σφᾶς ποιεῖσθαι to bring under their own sway T. 4.60.

4. ὑπό in Composition

Under (ὑποτιθέναι place under), behind (ὑπολείπειν leave behind), secretly (cp. underhand; ὑποπέμπειν send as a spy), gradually (ὑποκαταβαίνειν descend by degrees), slightly (ὑποφαίνειν shine a little); of accompaniment (ὑπᾴδειν accompany with the voice); of an action performed by another (ὑποκηρύ_ττεσθαι have oneself proclaimed by the herald).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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