The most simple form of sentence is the finite verb: ἐς-τί
Here the subject is in the personal ending, the predicate in the verbal stem. No other single word than a verb can of itself form a complete sentence.907
The subject of a sentence is a substantive or one of its equivalents.908
Equivalents of the Substantive.—The function of the substantive may be assumed by a pronoun, adjective (in masculine and feminine more frequently with the article), numeral, participle, relative clause (
οἳ ἐλήφθησαν τῶν πολεμίων ταὐτὰ ἤγγελλον
ἔφυγον περὶ ὀκτακοσίους
The predicate of a sentence is always a verb. The verb may either stand alone, as in Περικλῆς ἀπῆλθε
Predicate Nouns.—Nouns (substantival or adjectival) are often used as complements to the predicate. Thus,
a. A predicate substantive is a substantive forming part of the predicate and asserting something of its substantive: Περικλῆς ᾑρέθη στρατηγός
εἵλεσθε ἐκεῖνον πρεσβευτήν
b. A predicate adjective is an adjective forming part of the predicate and asserting something of its substantive: ὁ ἀνὴρ δίκαιός ἐστι
A predicate substantive or adjective may often be distinguished from an attributive ( cross912) in that the former implies some form of εἶναι
Attributive Adjective.—An attributive adjective is an adjective simply added to a noun to describe it, and not forming any part of an assertion made about it: ὁ δίκαιος ἀνήρ
All adjectives that are not attributive are predicate. So πρῶτοι ἀφί_κοντο
Under adjectives are included participles: ὁ μέλλων (attrib.) πόλεμος
Predicate substantives, adjectives, and participles, in agreement either with subject or object, are more common in Greek than in English, and often call for special shifts in translation:
μετεώρους ἐξεκόμισαν τὰ_ς ἁμάξα_ς
Appositive.—An appositive is a noun added to another noun or to a pronoun to describe or define it: Μιλτιάδης ὁ στρατηγός
Copula.—An indeterminate verb that serves simply to couple a predicate substantive or adjective to the subject is called a copula: Ξενοφῶν ἦν Ἀθηναῖος
a. The most common copulative verbs are εἶναι
a. The copula is strictly the predicate or is a part of the predicate with its supplements.
b. The above verbs may also be complete predicates: ἔστι θεός
c. For the omission of the copula, see cross944.
d. A predicate substantive or adjective stands in the same case as the subject when coupled to it by a copulative verb ( cross939).
e. For εἶναι added to a copulative verb, see cross1615.919
Object.—A verb may have an object on which its action is exerted. The object is a substantive (or its equivalent, cross908) in an oblique case. An object may be direct (in the accusative) or indirect (in the genitive or dative): Κῦρος δώσει ἓξ μνᾶς (direct) τῷ δούλῳ (indirect)
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.—Verbs capable of taking a direct object are called
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].