Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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887

Nouns beginning with α, ε, ο lengthen these vowels (α and ε to η, ο to ω) unless they are long by position. στρατ-ηγός army-leading, general (στρατός, ἄγω), εὐ-ήνεμος with fair wind (εὖ well, ἄνεμος), ξεν-ηλασία_ driving out of foreigners (ξένος, ἐλαύνω), ἀν-ώνυμος nameless (ἀν-, ὄνομα), ἀν-ώμαλος uneven (ἀν-, ὁμαλός).

a. Some compounds of ἄγω lead show α_: λοχ-α_γός captain (λόχος company).

b. By analogy to the compound the simple form sometimes assumes a long vowel: ἠνεμόεσσα windy. Cp. cross28 D.

c. Lengthening rarely occurs when a preposition or πᾶς precedes: συν-ωμοσία_ conspiracy (ὄμνυ_μι swear), παν-ήγυρις general assembly (ἄγυρις ἀγορά_).

d. The lengthening in 887 is properly the result of early contraction (στρατο αγος). On the pattern of such contracted forms irrational lengthening occurs when the first part of the compound ends in a consonant, as δυς-ηλεγής (for δυς-αλεγής) cruel from ἀλέγω care for.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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