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A compound word is formed by the union of two or more parts; as λογο-γράφο-ς speech-writer, δι-έξ-οδο-ς outlet (lit. way out through).
a. Compounds of three or more parts usually fall into two separate units; as βατραχο-μυ_ο-μαχία_ battle of the frogs-and-mice. Such compounds are common in comedy; as στρεψο-δικο-παν-ουργία_ rascally perversion of justice.
b. In a compound word two or more members are united under one accent; as in bláckberry contrasted with black berry. Most compounds in Greek, an inflected language, are genuine compounds, not mere word-groups such as are common in English, which is for the most part devoid of inflections.
c. Every compound contains a defining part and a defined part. The defining part usually precedes: εὐ-τυχής fortunate, as opposed to δυς-τυχής unfortunate. The parts of a compound stand in various syntactical relations to each other, as that of adjective or attributive genitive to a substantive, or that of adverb or object to a verb, etc. Compounds may thus be regarded as abbreviated forms of syntax. Cp. cross895 a, cross897 N. 1.
FIRST PART OF A COMPOUND
The first part of a compound may be a noun-stem, a verbstem, a numeral, a preposition or adverb, or an inseparable prefix.
a. The use of stems in composition is a survival of a period in the history of language in which inflections were not fully developed.
871FIRST PART A NOUN-STEM
First Declension (α_-stems).—The first part may
a. end in α_ or η (rarely): ἀγορα_-νόμο-ς clerk of the market (ἀγορά_), νι_κη-φόρο-ς bringing victory (νί_κη).
b. end in ο: δικο-γράφο-ς writer of law-speeches (δίκη justice). Here ο is substituted for α_ of the stem by analogy to ο-stems.
N.—Compounds of γῆ earth have γεω- (for γηο- by cross34); as γεω-μέτρης surveyor (land-measurer; μετρέω measure). Doric has γα_-μέτρης. Cp. cross224 a.
c. lose its vowel before a vowel: κεφαλ-αλγής causing head-ache (κεφαλή head, ἄλγ-ος pain).
Second Declension (ο-stems).—The first part may
a. end in ο: λογο-γράφο-ς speech-writer.
b. end in α_ or η (rarely): ἐλαφη-βόλο-ς deer-shooting (ἔλαφος, βάλλω). Here η is due to the analogy of α_-stems.
c. lose ο before a vowel: μόν-αρχο-ς monarch (sole ruler: μόνο-ς alone, ἄρχ-ω rule).
N.—Words of the ‘Attic’ declension may end in ω, as νεω-κόρο-ς custodian of a temple (νεώς).
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Third Declension (consonant stems).—The first part may
a. show the stem (ι, υ, αυ, ου): μαντι-πόλο-ς inspired (μάντι-ς seer, πέλ-ω, cp. -κολος), ἰχθυ-βόλο-ς catching-fish (ἰχθύ_ς, βάλλω), βου-κόλο-ς ox-herd (βοῦ-ς, -κολο-ς, cp. Lat. colo, and cross131).
N.—A few consonant stems retain the consonant: μελάγ-χολος dipped in black bile (μέλα_ς, χολή). See also cross876.
b. add ο to the stem: σωματ-ο-φύλαξ body-guard (σῶμα body, φυλάττω guard), μητρ-ό-πολις mother-city, metropolis (μήτηρ, πόλις), φυσι-ο-λόγος natural philosopher (φύσι-ς nature), ἰχθυ-ο-πώλης fishmonger (ἰχθύ_ς, πωλέω sell).
c. add α (rarely η): ποδ-ά-νιπτρο-ν water for washing the feet (ποῦς, νίπτω), λαμπαδ-η-δρομία_ torch-race.
Compounds of πᾶς all usually show παν-, as πάν-σοφο-ς (and πάς-σοφος 101 b) all-wise, παρ-ρησία_ frankness (‘all-speaking’); but also παντ- in πάνταρχος all-ruling; and παντ-ο- in παντ-ο-πώλιο-ν bazaar (πωλέω sell).
Neuter stems in ματ usually show ματ-ο, as ἀγαλματ-ο-ποιό-ς sculptor (ἄγαλμα statue, ποιέω make). Some have μα, as ὀνομα-κλυτό-ς of famous name; some show μο for ματο, as αἱμο-ρραγία_ hemorrhage (αἷμα, -ατος blood, ῥήγνυ_μι break, cross80).
Stems in ες (nom. -ης or -ος) usually drop ες and add ο; as ψευδ-ο μαρτυρία_ false testimony (ψευδ-ής); and so stems in ας, as κρεο-φάγο-ς flesh-eating (κρέας, φαγεῖν 529. 5). Some stems in ες and ας retain ες and ας (in poetry), as σακες-πάλο-ς wielding a shield (σάκος, πάλλω), σελας-φόρο-ς light-bringing (σέλας, φέρω); some add ι (for sake of the metre), as ὀρες-ί-τροφος mountain-bred (ὄρος, τρέφω); these may belong to 879.
Other abbreviations: γαλα-θηνό-ς nurse (γαλακτ- milk, θῆ-σθαι give suck), μελι-ηδής honey-sweet (μελιτ-), κελαι-νεφής black with clouds from κελαινό-ς black (cp. cross129 c) and νέφος cloud.
Words once beginning with Ϝ or ς.—When the second part consists of a word beginning with digamma, a preceding vowel is often not elided: κακο-εργός (Epic) doing ill (later κακοῦργος) from ϝέργο-ν work; μηνο-ειδής crescent-shaped (μήνη moon, ϝεῖδος shape); τι_μά_-ορος (later τι_μωρός) avenging (τι_μή honour, ϝοράω observe, defend).—Compounds of -οχος, from ἔχω have (orig. σέχω, -σοχος) contract: κληροῦχος holding an allotment of land (κλῆρο-ς lot), πολι-οῦχος protecting a city (for πολι-ο-οχος).
Flectional Compounds.—A compound whose first part is a case form, not a stem, is called a flectional compound (cp. sportsman, kinsfolk): (1) nominative: τρεις-καί-δεκα thirteen; (2) genitive: Διός-κουροι Dioscuri (sons of Zeus), Ἑλλής-ποντος Helle's sea, Πελοπόν-νησος (for Πελοπος-νησος, 105 a) Pelops' island; (3) dative: δορί-ληπτος won by the spear; (4) locative: ὁδοι-πόρος wayfarer, Πυλοι-γενής born in Pylus.—From such compounds derivatives may be formed, as Ἑλλησπόντιος of the Hellespont, θεοισεχθρία_ hatred of the gods.
880FIRST PART A VERB-STEM
Some compounds have as their first part a verb-stem (cp. break-water, pick-pocket, catch-penny). Such compounds are usually
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poetic adjectives. The verb-stem is usually transitive and has the form that appears in the present or aorist.
Before a vowel the verb-stem remains unchanged or drops a final vowel; before a consonant it adds ε, ο, or ι: φέρ-ασπις shield-bearing, μι_ς-άνθρωπος man-hating (μι_σέ-ω), ἐκ-ε-χειρία_ ( cross125 d) holding of hands, truce, λιπ-ο-στρατία_ desertion of the army, νι_κ-ό-βουλος prevailing in the Senate, ἀρχ-ι-τέκτων masterbuilder.
The verb-stem adds σι (before a vowel, ς). Some insert ε before σι (ς): σω-σί-πολις saving the state (σῴζω), ῥί_ψ-ασπις craven, lit. throwing away a shield (ῥί_π-τ-ω), δηξί-θυ_μος (and δακ-έ-θυ_μος) heart-eating (δάκ-ν-ω), ἑλκ-ε-σίπεπλος with long train, lit. trailing the robe (cp. ἑλκ-ε-χίτων)
a. This ε is the vowel added in many verb-stems ( cross485).
883FIRST PART A NUMERAL
The first part of a compound is often a numeral: δί-πους biped, τρί-πους tripod (having three feet), τέθρ-ιππον four-horse chariot, πέντ-α_θλον contest in five events.
884FIRST PART A PREPOSITION OR ADVERB
A preposition or adverb is often the first part of a compound: εἴς-οδος entrance, ἀπο-φεύγω flee from, εὐ-τυχής happy, ἀείμνηστος ever to be remembered.
a. Except when the substantive is treated as a verbal (as in εἴς-οδος entrance, cp. εἰς-ιέναι enter), prepositions are rarely compounded with substantives. Thus, σύν-δουλος fellow-slave, ὑπο-διδάσκαλος (= ὁ ὑπό τινι δ.) under-teacher; also ὑπό-λευκος whitish.
b. The ordinary euphonic changes occur. Observe that πρό before may contract with ο or ε to ου: προέχω or προὔχω hold before (cp. cross449 b). See cross124 a.
c. η sometimes is inserted after a preposition or takes the place of a final vowel: ὑπερ-ή-φανος conspicuous, ἐπ-ή-βολος having achieved.
d. Akin to adverbial compounds are some in φιλ-ο, as φιλο-μαθής one who gladly learns.
885FIRST PART AN INSEPARABLE PREFIX
Several prefixes occur only in composition:
1. α' (ν)- (ἀν- before a vowel, ἀ- before a consonant; alpha privative) with a negative force like Lat. in-, Eng. un- (or -less): ἀν-άξιος unworthy (= οὐκ ἄξιος), ἀν-όμοιος unlike, ἀν-ώδυνος anodyne (ὀδύνη pain, cp. cross887), ἄ-νους silly, ἄ-τι_μος unhonoured, ἄ-θεος godless, γάμος ἄγαμος marriage that is no marriage. ἀ- is also found before words once beginning with digamma or sigma: ἀ-ηδής unpleasant (ϝηδύς), ἀ-όρα_τος unseen (ϝοράω), ἄ-οπλος without shields (σοπλον), and, by contraction with the following vowel, ἄ_κων (ἀ-ϝέκων unwilling). But ἀν- often appears: ἀν-έλπιστος (and ἄ-ελπτος) unhoped for (ϝελπίς), ἄν-οπλος without shield.
a. ἀ-, ἀν- (for , 35 b) represent weak forms of I. E. ne ‘not.’
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2. ἡμι- half (Lat. sēmi-): ἡμι-κύκλιος semi-circular (κύκλος), ἡμι-όλιος half as much again (ὅλος whole), ἡμι-θνής half-dead.
3. δυς- (opposed to εὖ well) ill, un-, mis-, denoting something difficult, bad, or unfortunate, as δυς-τυχής unfortunate, δυς-χερής hard to manage, δυσδαίμων of ill fortune (contrast εὐ-τυχής, εὐ-χερής, εὐ-δαίμων), δυς-άρεστος ill-pleased, Δύς-παρις ill-starred Paris.
4. ἀ- (or ἁ-) copulative denotes union, likeness (cp. Lat. con-); ἀ-κόλουθος attendant, agreeing with (κέλευθος path: i.e. going on the same road), ἀ-τάλαντος of the same weight, ἅ-πα_ς all together. A variation of ἀ-copulative is ἀ- intensive: ἀ-τενής stretched (τείνω stretch), ἄ-πεδος level (πέδον ground).
a. ἀ- copulative stands for σα- (from ς 20, 35 c), and is connected with ἅμα, ὁμοῦ, and ὁμο- together.
5. νη- (poetic) with the force of a negative (cp. Lat. nē): νή-ποινος unavenged (ποινή punishment), νη-πενθής freeing from pain and sorrow (πένθος). In some cases νη- may be derived from ν (not) and the η of the second part, as ν-ῆστις not eating (poetic ἔδ-ω, cp. cross887).
6. ἀρι-, ἐρι- (poetic) with intensive force (cp. ἄρι-στος best), ἀρι-πρεπής very distinguished (πρέπω), ἐρί-τι_μος precious.
7. ἀγα- (poetic) intensive (cp. ἄγαν very): ἀγά-στονος loud wailing (στένω groan).
8. ζα-, δα- (poetic) intensive (for δyα δια- very, cross116): ζα-μενής very courageous (μένος courage), δά-σκιος thick-shaded (σκιά_).