Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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859VOWEL SUFFIXES

1. ο: nom. -ο-ς masc., fem., -ο-ν neut. A common suffix in primitives denoting persons (usually male agents) or things (often abstracts).

ἀρχ-ό-ς leader from ἄρχ-ω lead; ζυγ-ό-ν yoke from ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke (ζυγ-, ζευγ-); λόγ-ο-ς speech from λέγ-ω speak; νόμ-ο-ς custom, law from νέμ-ω distribute; στόλ-ο-ς expedition from στέλλω (στελ-) send; τροφ-ό-ς (ὁ, ἡ) nurse from τρέφ-ω nourish; φόρ-ο-ς tribute from φέρ-ω bear, bring.

a. The roots of some words appear only in other languages: οἶκ-ο-ς house, Lat. vīc-u-s.

b. The suffix has the accent when the agent is denoted. ε of the root varies with ο ( cross831 b).

2. α_: nom. -α_ or fem. A common suffix in primitives, usually to denote things, often abstracts (action).

ἀρχ-ή beginning from ἄρχ-ω begin; λοιβ-ή pouring from λείβ-ω pour; μάχ-η fight from μάχ-ομαι fight; σπουδ-ή haste from σπεύδ-ω hasten; στέγ-η roof from στέγ-ω shelter; τροφ-ή nourishment from τρέφ-ω nourish; τύχ-η chance from τυγχάνω happen (τυχ-); φορ-ά_ crop from φέρ-ω bear; φυγ-ή flight from φεύγω flee (φυγ-, φευγ-).

a. The roots of some words appear only in other languages: γυν-ή woman (Eng. queen).

b. Most substantives accent the suffix; but many accent the penult.

3. α_: nom. -α_ς, -ης, in a few masculines, usually compounds: παιδο-τρίβ-η-ς trainer of boys in gymnastics (τρί_βω rub).

4. ι, ι_: primary, in ὄφ-ι-ς snake, poet. τρόχ-ι-ς runner (τρέχ-ω run), πόλ-ι-ς city (originally πόλ-ι_-ς), ἤν-ι_-ς yearling. Many words with the ι-suffix have taken on δ or τ; as ἐλπ-ί-ς hope ἐλπί-δ-ος (ἔλπ-ομαι hope), χάρ-ι-ς grace χάρι-τ-ος (χαίρω rejoice, χαρ-).

5. ιο: in a few primitive verbal adjectives (ἅγ-ιο-ς 858. 2), but common in denominate adjectives ( cross858. 2), rare in substantives: νυμφ-ίο-ς bridegroom (νύμφη bride); in names of things more concrete than those ending in -ια_: μαρτύρ-ιο-ν a testimony (cp. μαρτύρ-ια_ testimony); in gentiles ( cross844. 3); in diminutives ( cross852. 1), often in combination with other diminutive suffixes (αριο, ιδιο, υλλιο, etc. cross852); often in combination with a final stem vowel ( cross851. 1, 858. 2).

6. ια, ια_: rarely primary, in φύζα flight (φεύγ-ω flee); in verbal abstracts: μανία_ madness ( cross840 a. 9); usually secondary in the fem. of adj. in -ύς: βαρεῖα βαρεῦ-ια, πίττα pitch (= πικ-ῖα, cp. Lat. pic-us), γλῶττα tongue = γλωχ-ια (cp. γλωχ-ί_-ς point, γλῶχ-ες beards of corn), θῆττα serf ( cross843 b. 4); in the nom. fem. of participles in ντ, οτ (λύ_ουσα from λυ_οντ-ῖα, λελυκυ-ῖα); in denominative abstracts expressing quality ( cross840 b. 1, 2); in names of persons: ταμ-ία_-ς steward (τέμ-ν-ω cut, ἔ-ταμ-ον), Νι_κ-ία_-ς Nicias (νί_κη victory).—Often in combination with other suffixes: αινα 843 b. 5; -ε-ια 840 a. 9; ισσα 843 b. 4; τρια, τειρα_ 839 b. 2, 3.

7. Ϝο, Ϝα_: primary, in ὅρος for ὅρ (ϝ) ος boundary, κεν (ϝ) ός empty, λα_ι (ϝ) ός left (Lat. laevus), καλ (ϝ) ός beautiful; (probably) secondary in verbals in -τέος (λυτέος that must be loosed) and in adj. in -αλέος ( cross860. 1).

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8. υ (ευ): primary, in adjectives ( cross858. cross15), in substantives: γέν-υ-ς chin, πῆχ-υ-ς fore-arm.—9. υ_: primary, in feminines: ἰσχ-ύ_-ς strength, ὀφρ-ῦ-ς eye-brow, νέκ-υ_-ς (Hom.) corpse, cf. Lat. nec-are.—10. ευ (ηυ): primary of the agent ( cross839 a. 5); rarely of things: κοπ-εύ-ς chisel (κόπ-τ-ω cut); secondary, of the person concerned ( cross843 a. 1), in gentiles ( cross844. 1), rarely of things: δονακ-εύ-ς reed-thicket (δόναξ reed); in diminutives in -ιδεύς ( cross853).—11. οι (nom. ): primary in πειθ-ώ πειθοῦς persuasion ( cross279).—12. ωϜ (nom. -ως): primary in ἥρ-ως ἥρω-ος hero ( cross267).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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