Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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833

Suffixes.—A suffix is a formative element added to a root (or to a stem) and standing between the root and the ending. Suffixes limit or particularize the general meaning of the root; but only in a few cases is the distinct meaning of the suffix known to us.

a. The origin of the Greek suffixes is often obscure; of those inherited from the parent language only some were employed to make new words; others were formed by Greek itself (productive suffixes). From the analogy of the modern languages we infer that some suffixes were once independent words, which, on becoming a part of a compound, lost their signification. Thus -hood, -head in childhood, godhead are derived from Old Eng. ‘hād,’ Gothic ‘haidus’ character, nature; -ship in ownership, courtship, comes from a lost word meaning ‘shape’; -ly in friendly from Old Eng. ‘līc’ body. So -ώδης meaning smelling (ὄζω), as in εὐώδης fragrant, acquired a range of meaning originally inappropriate to it by passing into the general idea of ‘full of,’ ‘like,’ as in ποιώδης grassy (ποία_), λοιμώδης pestilential (λοιμός), σφηκώδης wasp-like (σφήξ). This suffix is distinct from -ειδής having the form of, like ( cross898 a).

Conversely, many suffixes, themselves insignificant, acquired a definite meaning by reason of the root with which they were associated.—Irrespective of its meaning, one word may serve as a model for the creation of another word; as starvation, constellation, etc., are modelled on contemplation, etc.

b. Many dissyllabic suffixes, due to a combination of the final letter or letters of the stem and an original monosyllabic suffix, adapt themselves to independent use. Cp. ego-tism for ego-ism because of patriot-ism, -able in laughable and probable (from proba-bilis). Thus, patronymics in -άδης, -ιάδης 845. 2, 3; words in -αινα 843 b, 5; -αῖος 858. 2 a; -εῖον 851. 1; -έστερος 316; -έτης 843 a, N.; -ήεις 858. 3; -ήϊος 858. 2 b; -εῖος 858. 2 a; -όεις 858. 3; -ίδιον 852. 2; -ί_της 843 a, N., 844. 2 a; -σιμος 858. 9; -ώτης 843 a, N., 844. 2 a; and many others.

c. Simple suffixes are often added to case forms or adverbs, thus producing,

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by contamination, dissyllabic suffixes; as ἀρχαῖ-ο-ς ancient 858. 2 a; παλαι-ό-ς of old date 828 b, ἐαρι-νό-ς vernal 858. 12; φυσι-κό-ς natural 858. 6 b; cp. ἐν-άλι-ο-ς marine (ἅλς).

d. Many compound suffixes are formed by the union of two suffixes, new stems being created by the addition of a suffix to a stem, as: τηρ-ιο 851. 2, ισκ-ιο 852. 6, ισκ-ιδιο 854. See cross854.

e. Suffixes often show gradations: τηρ, τωρ, τερ, τρ ( cross36 N. 1) as in δο-τήρ, δώ-τωρ, δότειρα (out of δοτερ-ῖα) giver; ψάλ-τρ-ια harp-player; μην μν: λι-μήν harbour, λί-μν-η lake; μωρ μαρ: τέκ-μωρ, τέκ-μαρ goal; ωρ ρ: ὕδ-ωρ water, ὕδ-ρα_ hydra; ων αν: τέκτ-ων carpenter, fem. τέκταινα, from τεκταν-ῖα; and in λέων lion, fem. λέαινα ( cross843 b. 5).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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