Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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EXPLANATION OF THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT FORMS 408

The periphrastic third plural is used instead of the forms derived directly from the union of the stem with the ending.

Thus, γεγραμμένοι εἰσί is used for γεγραφ-νται which would become γεγράφαται by 35 b, ν between consonants passing into α. The periphrastic form is also used in verbs adding ς to their stems, as τετελε-ς-μένοι εἰσί for τετελε-ς-νται. Stems in ν that drop ν in the perfect system form their perfect and pluperfect regularly; thus, κρί_νω (κριν-) judge has κέκρινται, ἐκέκριντο.

N.—On the retention of -αται, -ατο see cross465 f.

409

Euphonic Changes.—For the euphonic changes in these forms see cross82-87, 103.

a. Labial Stems.—λέλειμ-μαι is for λελειπ-μαι, λέλειφ-θον is for λελειπ-σθον, λέλειφθε is for λελειπ-σθε ( cross103). In the same manner are inflected other labial stems, as τρί_βω (τρι_β-) rub, ῥί_πτω (ῥι_π-) throw: τέτρι_μ-μαι for τετρι_β-μαι, τέτρι_ψαι for τετρι_β-σαι, etc. Stems ending in μπ drop π before μ, but retain it before other consonants. Thus,

πεπεμπ-μαιbecomesπέπεμμαιπεπεμπ-μεθαbecomesπεπέμμεθα
πεπεμπ-σαιπέπεμψαιπεπεμπ-σθεπέπεμφθε ( cross103)
πεπεμπ-ταιπέπεμπται

b. Dental Stems.—πέπεις-ται is for πεπειθ-ται ( cross83), πέπεις-θον is for πεπειθθον ( cross83), πέπεισθε is for πεπειθ- (ς) θε ( cross83, cross103). The ς thus produced was trans

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ferred to the first persons πέπεισμαι, πεπείσμεθα ( cross86, cross87). Like πέπεισμαι, etc., are formed and inflected ἔψευσμαι from ψεύδω (ψευδ-) deceive, πέφρασμαι from φράζω (φραδ-) declare, ἔσπεισμαι ( cross100) from σπένδω (σπενδ-) pour a libation.

409bD

Hom. has the original forms πεφραδμένος, κεκορυθμένος.

c. Palatal Stems.—πέπρα_ξαι is for πεπρα_γ-σαι ( cross97), πέπρα_κται is for πεπρα_γται ( cross82 a), πέπρα_χθε is for πεπρα_γ-σθε ( cross103). Like πέπρα_γμαι are inflected πλέκω (πλεκ-) weave πέπλεγ-μαι, ἄγω (ἀγ-) lead ἦγμαι, ἀλλάττω (ἀλλαγ-) exchange ἤλλαγμαι, ταράττω (ταραχ-) confuse τετάραγμαι. Stems in -γχ change χ before μ to γ and drop one γ (as in ἐλήλεγ-μαι for ἐληλεγγ-μαι, 85 and 85 b), but keep the second palatal before other consonants (as in ἐλήλεγξαι for ἐληλεγχ-σαι, 97; ἐλήλεγκ-ται for ἐληλεγχ-ται, cross82). On the reduplication see cross446.

d. Liquid and Nasal Stems.—Stems in λ or ρ are inflected like ἤγγελμαι, as στέλλω (στελ-, σταλ-) send ἔσταλμαι, αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise ἦρμαι, ἐγείρω (ἐγερ-) wake ἐγήγερμαι ( cross446). Stems in ν retaining the nasal are inflected like πέφασμαι, as σημαίνω (σημαν-) signify σεσήμασμαι. (For -σμαι see cross94 a and b.) Stems in ν dropping the nasal ( cross559 a) are inflected like λέλυμαι, as κρί_νω (κριν-) judge κέκριμαι.

e. Vowel Stems adding ς.—Here the stem ends in a vowel except before μ and τ; thus, τετέλε-σαι, τετέλε-σθον, τετέλε-σθε: but τετέλε-ς-μαι, τετελέ-ς-μεθα, τετέλε-ς-ται.

N.—Since the stem of τελέω is properly τελες- (τελες-yω, cross624), the original inflection is τετελες-σαι, whence τετέλε-σαι ( cross107); τετέλες-ται; τετελες-σθον, τετελες-σθε, whence τετέλεσθον, τετέλεσθε ( cross103). τετέλεσμαι and τετελέσμεθα are due to the analogy of the other forms.

410

The forms πέφανσαι, ἐπέφανσο, and πέφανσο are not attested. Cp. cross707 a.

411

The principal parts of the verbs in 406-407 are as follows:

ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-), ἀγγελῶ, ἤγγειλα, ἤγγελκα, ἤγγελμαι, ἠγγέλθην.

γράφω write (γραφ-), γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, 2 aor. pass. ἐγράφην.

ἐλέγχω confute (ἐλεγχ-), ἐλέγξω, ἤλεγξα, ἐλήλεγμαι, ἠλέγχθην.

λείπω leave (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-), λείψω, 2 perf. λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 a. ἔλιπον.

πείθω persuade (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-), πείσω, ἔπεισα, 1 perf. πέπεικα I have persuaded, 2 perf. πέποιθα I trust, πέπεισμαι, ἐπείσθην.

πρά_ττω do (πρα_γ-), πρά_ξω, ἐπρα_ξα, 2 perf. πέπρα_γα I have fared and I have done, πέπρα_γμαι, ἐπρά_χθην.

τελέω finish (τελε-ς-), τελῶ, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην.

φαίνω show (φαν-), φανῶ, ἔφηνα, 1 perf. πέφαγκα I have shown, 2 perf. πέφηνα I have appeared, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνθην I was shown, 2 aor. pass. ἐφάνην I appeared.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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