Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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819

In some verbs showing 1st and 2nd aorist, or 1st and 2nd perfect, the first tenses are generally transitive, the second tenses generally intransitive. The future active of these verbs is transitive. In some transitive verbs the perfect (usually the 2nd perf.) is intransitive.

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ἄγνυ_μι: trans. κατά_γνυ_μι break, -έα_ξα; intrans. κατά_γνυμαι break, 2 aor. -εά_γην; 2 perf. -έα_γα am broken.

βαίνω go: trans. βήσω shall cause to go, 1 aor. ἔβησα, Ion. and poet.; intrans. 2 aor. ἔβην went, pf. βέβηκα have gone, stand fast.

δύ_ω: trans. cause to enter, sink, put on, δύ_σω, ἔδυ_σα, δέδυκα; intrans. enter, pass under, δύ_ομαι, δύ_νω, 2 aor. ἔδυ_ν dived, went down, δέδυ_κα have entered, gone down. In prose usually καταδύ_ω make sink, κατέδυ_σα, καταδύ_σω; καταδύ_ομαι sink, καταδύ_σομαι, κατέδυ_ν.—Of another's clothes, ἐνδύ_ω (ἐνέδυ_σα) means put on, ἀποδύ_ω ἐκδύ_ω (ἀπέδυ_σα ἐξέδυ_σα) mean take off; of one's own clothes, ἐνδύ_ομαι and ἐνέδυ_ν mean put on, ἀποδύ_ομαι ἐκδύ_ομαι (ἀπέδυ_ν ἐξέδυ_ν) mean take off.

ἐγείρω: trans. rouse, wake up, ἐγερῶ, ἤγειρα, etc.; intrans. ἐγείρομαι wake, am awake, ἐγερθήσομαι, ἠγέρθην, 2 aor. ἠγρόμην awoke, 2 perf. ἐγρήγορα am awake.

ἵστημι set: trans. στήσω shall set, 1 aor. ἔστησα set, ἐστάθην was set, ἵσταμαι set for myself, στήσομαι, ἐστησάμην. Four active tenses are intrans.: 2 aor. ἔστην (set myself) stood, pf. ἕστηκα (have set myself) stand, am standing, εἱστήκη stood, was standing, 2 perf. ἕστατον stand, fut. pf. ἑστήξω shall stand. So also ἵσταμαι set myself, stand, στήσομαι.

N.—The same distinction prevails in the compounds: ἀνίστημι raise up, ἀνέστην stood up, ἀφίστημι set off, cause to revolt, ἀπέστην stood off, revolted, ἀφέστηκα am distant, am in revolt; ἐφίστημι set over, ἐπέστην set myself over, ἐφέστηκα am set over; καθίστημι set down, establish, κατέστην established myself, became established, καθέστηκα am established. The aorist middle has a different meaning: κατεστήσατο established for himself; συνίστημι introduce, unite, συνέστημεν banded together.

λείπω leave: trans. λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα have left, have failed, am wanting. λείπομαι mid. = remain (leave myself), pass. = am left, am left behind, am inferior; 2 aor. mid. ἐλιπόμην left for myself (in Hom. was left, am inferior), λείψομαι will leave for myself, will remain, be left.

μαίνω: trans. madden, ἐκμαίνω, -μανῶ, -έμηνα; intrans. rage, μαίνομαι, μανοῦμαι, ἐμάνην, 2 perf. μέμηνα am raging.

ὄλλυ_μι: trans. destroy (perdo), ἀπόλλυ_μι, -ολῶ, -ώλεσα, -ολώλεκα have ruined (perdidi); intrans. perish (pereo), ἀπόλλυμαι, -ολοῦμαι, 2 aor. -ωλόμην, 2 perf. -όλωλα am ruined (perii).

πείθω: trans. persuade, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα have persuaded, ἐπείσθην, πεισθήσομαι; intrans. (persuade myself) obey, believe, πείθομαι, πείσομαι, ἐπείσθην, πέπεισμαι am convinced; 2 perf. πέποιθα I trust ( = πιστεύω) is rare in prose.

πήγνυ_μι: trans. fix, make fast, πήξω, ἔπηξα, ἐπήχθην; intrans. am fixed, freeze, πήγνυμαι, παγήσομαι, ἐπάγην, 2 perf. πέπηγα am fixed, frozen.

πί_νω drink: 2 aor. ἔπιον drank, 1 aor. ἔπι_σα caused to drink.

πλήττω: trans. terrify, ἐκπλήττω, καταπλήττω, -έπληξα; intrans. am affrighted, ἐκπλήττομαι, -επλάγην.

πρά_ττω do: πέπρα_χα (probably late) have done, πέπρα_γα have fared (well or ill) and have done.

ῥήγνυ_μι: trans. break, -ῥήξω, ἔρρηξα; intrans. break, burst, ῥήγνυμαι, -ῥαγήσομαι, ἐρράγην, 2 perf. ἔρρωγα am broken.

σβέννυ_μι: trans. extinguish, put out, ἀποσβέννυ_μι, ἀπέσβεσα, ἀπεσβέσθην; intrans.

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be extinguished, go out, ἀποσβέννυμαι, ἀποσβήσομαι, ἀπέσβην went out, ἀπέσβηκα am extinguished.

σήπω: trans. make rot; intrans. rot, σήπομαι, ἐσάπην rotted, 2 perf. σέσηπα am rotten.

τήκω: trans. cause to melt; intrans. melt, τήκομαι, ἐτάκην, 2 perf. τέτηκα am melted.

φαίνω: trans. show, φανῶ, ἔφηνα, πέφαγκα have shown, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνθην was shown, made known; trans. also show, declare, φαίνομαι, φανοῦμαι, ἐφηνάμην showed (rare and poetic in the simple form; ἀπεφηνάμην declared is common); intrans. show oneself, appear, φαίνομαι, φανήσομαι and φανοῦμαι, ἐφάνην appeared, 2 perf. πέφηνα have shown myself, appeared. The middle means show oneself, appear; the passive, am shown, am made evident. φανήσομαι means shall appear or shall be shown, and is not very different in sense from φανοῦμαι (but see cross1738, cross1911).

φθείρω: trans. destroy, διαφθείρω, -φθερῶ, -έφθειρα, -έφθαρκα; intrans. am ruined, διαφθείρομαι, -εφθάρην, -φθαρήσομαι, 2 perf. διέφθορα am ruined in Hom., have destroyed in Attic poetry.

φύ_ω: trans. bring forth, produce, φύ_σω, ἔφυ_σα; intrans. am produced, come into being, φύ_ομαι, φύ_σομαι, ἔφυ_ν, 2 perf. πέφυ_κα am by nature.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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