Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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IRREGULAR MI-VERBS 768

εἰμί (ἐς-, cp. Lat. es-se) am has only the present and future systems.

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PRESENTIMPERFECT
IndicativeSubjunctiveOptativeImperativeIndicative
Sing. 1 εἰμίεἴην or ἦν
2 εἶᾖςεἴηςἴσθιἦσθα
3 ἐστίεἴηἔστωἦν
Dual 2 ἐστόνἦτονεἴητον or εἶτονἔστονἤστον
3 ἐστόνἦτονεἰήτην or εἴτηνἔστωνἤστην
Plur. 1 ἐσμένὦμενεἴημεν or εἶμενἦμεν
2 ἐστέἦτεεἴητε or εἶτεἔστεἦτε or ἦστε (rare)
3 εἰσίὦσιεἴησαν or εἶενἔστωνἦσαν

Infin. εἶναι Participle ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν, gen. ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, etc. ( cross305)

FUTURE (with middle forms):

ἔσομαι, ἔσῃ (or ἔσει), ἔσται, ἔσεσθον, ἔσεσθον, ἐσόμεθα, ἔσεσθε, ἔσονται, opt. ἐσοίμην, inf. ἔσεσθαι, part. ἐσόμενος, , -ον.

a. The imperative 3 pl. ἔστωσαν occurs in Plato and Demosthenes; ὄντων in Plato and on inscriptions.

b. In composition ὤν retains its accent, as ἀπών, ἀποῦσα, ἀπόντος, etc.; and so ἔσται, as ἀπέσται ( cross426 e).

768D

1. Homer has the following forms:

Pres. ind. 2 sing. ἐσσί and εἶς, 1 pl. εἰμέν, 3 pl. (εἰσί, and) ἔα_σι not enclitic.

Imperf. ἦα, ἔα, ἔον, 2 sing. ἦσθα, ἔησθα, 3 sing. ἦεν, ἔην, ἤην, ἦν (rare), 3 pl. ἦσαν, ἔσαν; iterative ( cross495) ἔσκον (for ἐς-σκον).

Subj. ἔω, ἔῃς, 3 sing. ἔῃ, ἔῃσι, ᾖσι, 3 pl. ἔωσι (twice ὦσι); μέτειμι has 1 sing. μετέω, and μετείω (with metrical lengthening).

Opt. εἴην, etc., also ἔοις, ἔοι; Imper. 2 sing. ἔς-σο (middle form), ἔστω, 3 pl. ἔστων.

Inf. εἶναι and ἔμμεναι (for ἐς-μεναι), ἔμμεν, also ἔμεναι, ἔμεν.

Part. ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, etc., rarely the Attic forms.

Fut. often with σς: ἔσσομαι and ἔσομαι; 3 sing. ἔσεται, ἔσται, ἔσσεται, also ἐσσεῖται (as in Dor.), ἔσσεσθαι, ἐσσόμενος.

2. Herodotus has pres, ind. 2 sing. εἶς, 1 pl. εἰμέν; imperf., the Attic forms and ἔα, 2 sing. ἔας, 2 pl. ἔατε; iterative ἔσκον; subj. ἔω, ἔωσι; opt. once ἐν-έοι, εἴησαν, less freq. εἶεν; part. ἐών.

3. Dor. pres. ind. 1 sing. ἠμί and εἰμί, 2 sing. ἐσσί, 1 pl. ἠμές and εἰμές (Pind. εἰμέν), 3 pl. ἐντί; imperf. 3 sing. ἦς (for ἠς-τ), 1 pl. ἦμες, 3 pl. ἦσαν and ἦν; inf. ἦμεν, εἶμεν; part. ἐών and fem. ἔασσα, pl. ἔντες. Fut. ἐσσεῦμαι, -ῇ, -ῆται or -εῖται, ἐσσοῦνται ( cross540 D.).

4. Aeolic ἔμμι out of ἐσμι; imper. ἔσσο, part. ἔων, ἔσσα (Sappho); imperf. ἔον.

769

The optative forms εἴημεν, εἴητε, εἴησαν are found only in prose writers. εἶμεν occurs in poetry and Plato, εἶτε only in poetry, εἶεν in poetry and prose and more frequently than εἴησαν.

770

The indicative εἰμί is for *ἐς-μι ( cross37); εἶ is for *ἐσι (originally ἐς-σί, 463 b); ἐς-τί retains the original ending τι; εἰσί is for (ς-) εντι, cp. Lat. sunt; ἐσμέν, with ς before μ despite 105; the ς is due to the influence of ἐστέ. The subjunctive is for ἔω, from ἐς-ω; the optative εἴην is for ἐς-ιη-ν; εἶμεν for ἐς-ι_μεν, cp. Lat. sĩmus. The infinitive εἶναι is for ἐς-ναι; the participle ὤν is for ἐών, from ἐς-ων.

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771

Old Attic is from ἦα (Hom.) = ἠς, i.e. ἐς- augmented + the secondary ending μ, which becomes α by 35 c. ἦς for ἦσθα is rare. The 3 pl. was originally ἦν, contracted from ἦεν (Hom.); this ἦν came to be used as 3 sing. By analogy to ἦμεν ἦστε the 1 sing. ἦν was formed.

772

Inflected according to the ω-conjugation are the subjunctive, the participle ὤν, and several dialect forms.

773

εἶμι (ἰ-, εἰ-; cp. Lat. ι_-ρε) go has only the present system.

PRESENTIMPERFECT
IndicativeSubjunctiveOptativeImperativeIndicative
Sing. 1 εἶμιἴωἴοιμι or ἰοίηνᾖα or ᾔειν
2 εἶἴῃςἴοιςἴθιᾔεισθα or ᾔεις
3 εἶσιἴῃἴοιἴτωᾔειν or ᾔει
Dual 2 ἴτονἴητονἴοιτονἴτονᾖτον
3 ἴτονἴητονἰοίτηνἴτωνᾔτην
Plur. 1 ἴμενἴωμενἴοιμενᾖμεν
2 ἴτεἴητεἴοιτεἴτεᾖτε
3 ἴα_σιἴωσιἴοιενἰόντωνᾖσαν or ᾔεσαν

Infinitive: ἰέναι. Participle: ἰών, ἰοῦσα, ἰόν, gen. ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, etc.

Verbal Adjectives: ἰτός (poet.), ἰτέος, ἰτητέος.

a. The imperative 3 pl. ἴτωσαν occurs rarely in Xenophon and Plato.

b. The participle ἰών is accented like a second aorist. The accent of the simple form of participle and infinitive is kept in composition, as παριών, παριοῦσα, ἀπιέναι. Otherwise the compounds have recessive accent so far as the rules allow: πάρειμι, ἄπεισι, but ἀπῇα, προσῇμεν.

773D

Hom. has 2 sing. εἶσθα (Hesiod εἶς); subj. ἴῃσθα and ἴῃς, ἴῃσιν and ἴῃ, ἴομεν and ἴ_ομεν; opt. ἰείη and ἴοι; infin. ἴμεναι, ἴμεν, and ἰέναι (twice). Imperf.: 1 sing. ἤϊα, ἀνήϊον, 3 sing. ἤϊε, ᾖε, ᾔει (at the verse-end, ᾖε?), ἴε; dual ἴτην, pl. ᾔομεν, ἤϊσαν, ἐπῇσαν, ἴσαν, ἤϊον. For ἤϊα, ἤϊε, ἤϊσαν some write ᾔεα, ᾔεε, ᾔεσαν. Future: εἴσομαι Ω 462, ο 213. ϝείσομαι Ξ 8 and ϝείσατο, ἐϝείσατο probably come from ϝί_εμαι strive ( cross778).

Hdt.: ἤϊα, ἤϊε, ἤϊσαν (Mss.), but for ηι is correct.

774

εἶμι in the indicative present means I shall go, I am going. See cross1880. For I go ἔρχομαι is used in the present indicative, but not (in prose) in the imperfect, or in the other moods. The scheme of moods and tenses is as follows: Present: indic. ἔρχομαι, subj. ἴω, opt. ἴοιμι or ἰοίην, imper. ἴθι, inf. ἰέναι, part. ἰών. Imperfect: ᾖα. Future: εἶμι, ἐλευσοίμην, ἐλεύσεσθαι, ἐλευσόμενος.

775

In the imperfect the older prose writers usually have ᾖα, ᾔεισθα, ᾔει-ν, the later have ᾔειν, ᾔεις, ᾔει. The plural forms ᾔειμεν and ᾔειτε are not classical. Prose writers seem to prefer ᾔεσαν to ᾖσαν. The here is the stem ει augmented.

776

The part., the subjv., and the opt. are inflected with the thematic vowel; and so also some of the dialectical forms.

-- 213 --

777

ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send is inflected nearly like τίθημι (p. cross135). The inflection of the present and second aorist systems is as follows:

ACTIVEMIDDLE (PASSIVE) MIDDLE
INDICATIVEINDICATIVE
Pres.Imperf.Second Aor.Pres.Imperf.Second Aor.
S. 1 ἵ_ημιἵ_ην (ἧκα) ἵ_εμαιἱ_έμηνεἵμην
2 ἵ_ης, ἱ_εῖς ( cross746 b) ἵ_εις ( cross746 b) (ἧκας) ἵ_εσαι ( cross465 a) ἵ_εσοεἷσο
3 ἵ_ησιἵ_ει (ἧκε) ἵ_εταιἵ_ετοεἷτο
D. 2 ἵ_ετονἵ_ετονεἷτονἵ_εσθονἵ_εσθονεἷσθον
3. ἵ_ετονἱ_έτηνεἵτηνἵ_εσθονἱ_έσθηνεἵσθην
P. 1 ἵ_εμενἵ_εμενεἷμενἱ_έμεθαἱ_έμεθαεἵμεθα
2 ἵ_ετεἵ_ετεεἷτεἵ_εσθεἵ_εσθεεἷσθε
3 ἱ_ᾶσι ( cross463 d) ἵ_εσανεἷσανἵ_ενταιἵ_εντοεἷντο

SUBJUNCTIVE
S. 1 ἱ_ῶἱ_ῶμαιὧμαι
2 ἱ_ῇςᾗςἱ_ῇ
3 ἱ_ῇἱ_ῆταιἧται
D. 2 ἱ_ῆτονἧτονἱ_ῆσθονἧσθον
3 ἱ_ῆτονἧτονἱ_ῆσθονἧσθον
P. 1 ἱ_ῶμενὧμενἱ_ώμεθαὥμεθα
2 ἱ_ῆτεἧτεἱ_ῆσθεἧσθε
3 ἱ_ῶσιὧσιἱ_ῶνταιὧνται

OPTATIVE

-- 214 --

S 1 ἱ_είηνεἵηνἱ_είμηνεἵμην ( cross758 c)
2 ἱ_είηςεἵηςἱ_εῖοεἷο
3 ἱ_είηεἵηἱ_εῖτοεἷτο
(—οἷτο)
D. 2 ἱ_εῖτον orεἷτον orἱ_εῖσθονεἷσθον
ἱ_είητονεἵητον
3 ἱ_είτην orεἵτην orἱ_είσθηνεἵσθην
ἱ_ειήτηνεἱήτην
P. 1 ἱ_εῖμεν orεἷμεν orἱ_είμεθαεἵμεθα
ἱ_είημενεἵημεν (—οἵμεθα)
2 ἱ_εῖτε orεἷτε orἱ_εῖσθεεἷσθε
ἱ_είητεεἵητε (—οἷσθε)
3 ἱ_εῖεν orεἷεν orἱ_εῖντοεἷντο
ἱ_είησανεἵησαν (—οἷντο)
IMPERATIVE
S. 2 ἵ_ει ( cross746 b) ἕςἵ_εσοοὗ
3 ἱ_έτωἕτωἱ_έσθωἕσθω
D. 2 ἵ_ετονἕτονἵ_εσθονἕσθον
3 ἱ_έτωνἕτωνἱ_έσθωνἕσθων
P. 2 ἵ_ετεἕτεἵ_εσθεἕσθε
3 ἱ_έντων ( cross466. 2, b)ἕντωνἱ_έσθων ( cross466. 2, b)ἕσθων

INFINITIVE
ἱ_έναιεἷναιἵ_εσθαιἕσθαι

PARTICIPLE
ἱ_είς, ἱ_εῖσα, ἱ_ένεἵς, —εἷσα, —ἕνἱ_έμενοςἕμενος

Future: —ἥσω in prose only in composition; —ἥσομαι only in composition.

First Aorist: ἧκα in prose usually in comp., — ἡκάμην; both only in the indic.

Perfect Active: —εἷκα only in composition.

Perfect Middle (Passive): —εἷμαι (plup. —εἵμην), —εἵσθω, —εἷσθαι, —εἱμένος, only in composition.

Aorist Passive: —εἵθην, —ἑθῶ, —ἑθῆναι, —ἑθείς, only in composition.

Future Passive: —ἑθήσομαι, only in composition.

Verbal Adjectives: —ἑτός, —ἑτέος, only in composition.

777D

1. In Hom. ἵημι usually has the initial ι short. Present: -ἱεῖς, ἵησι and -ἱεῖ, ἱεῖσι from ἱε-ντι, inf. ἱέμεναι and -ἱέμεν. Imperf.: -ἵειν, -ἵεις, -ἵει, 3 pl. ἵεν. Future: ἥσω, once ἀν-έσει. First Aorist: ἧκα and ἕηκα, ἐνήκαμεν once, ἧκαν once. Second Aorist: for the augmented εἱ-forms Hom. has usually the unaugmented ἑ-; as ἕσαν, ἕντο. In the subjunctive μεθείω, μεθήῃ, ἀφέῃ, μεθῶμεν.

2. Hdt. has -ἱεῖ (accented -ἵει), ἱεῖσι, imperf. -ἵ_ει, perf. ἀνέωνται for ἀνεῖνται, part. με-μετ-ι-μένος for μεθειμένος.

3. Dor. has perf. ἕωκα, ἕωμαι.

778

Since ἵημι is reduplicated (probably for σι-ση-μι) the initial ι should be short, as it is in Hom. (rarely in Attic poetry). ι_ is probably due to confusion with the ι_ of Hom. ἵ_εμαι (ϝί_εμαι) strive, a meaning that ἵεμαι occasionally shows in Attic. ἵεμαι meaning hasten occurs only in the present and imperfect.

779

ει is for ε ε in the second aorist active (ἐ-ἑ-μεν εἷμεν), perfect active (ἑ-ἑ-κα εἷκα), perfect middle (ἑ-ἑ-μαι εἷμαι), second aorist passive (ε' ἑ-θην εἵθην). In the aorists ε' is the augment, in the perfects the first is the reduplication of the weak stem ἑ-. The first aorist ἧ-κα has the strong stem form. Present subj. ἱ_ῶ, ἱ_ῇς, etc., are for ἱ_ἑω, ἱ_ἑῃς, etc.; aor. subj. -ὧ, -ᾗς, etc., are for -ἕ-ω, -ἕ-ῃς, etc.

780

Much confusion exists in the Mss. as regards the accentuation. Thus for ἱ_εῖς we find ἵεις, and in Hom. προΐει (present), as if from ἵω. See cross746 c.

781

For ἀφί_οιτε, ἀφί_οιεν and προοῖτο, προοῖσθε, προοῖντο (also accented πρόοιτο, etc.) see cross746 c.

-- 215 --

782

The imperfect of ἀφί_ημι is either ἀφί_ην or ἠφί_ην ( cross450).

783

φημί (φα-, φη-, cp. Lat. fā-ri) say, say yes , or assent is inflected in the present as follows:

PRESENTIMPERFECT
Indic.Subj.Opt.Imper.
Sing. 1 φημίφῶφαίηνἔφην
2 φῄςφῇςφαίηςφαθί or φάθιἔφησθα or ἔφης
3 φησίφῇφαίηφάτωἔφη
Dual 2 φατόνφῆτονnot foundφάτονἔφατον
3 φατόνφῆτονnot foundφάτωνἐφάτην
Plur. 1 φαμένφῶμενφαῖμεν or φαίημενἔφαμεν
2 φατέφῆτεφαίητεφάτεἔφατε
3 φα_σίφῶσιφαῖεν or φαίησανφάντωνἔφασαν

Infin.: φάναι; Partic.: poet. φά_ς, φᾶσα, φάν (Attic prose φάσκων); Verbal Adj.: φατός (poet.), φατέος.

Future: φήσω, φήσειν, φήσων.

First Aorist: ἔφησα, φήσω, φήσαιμι, —, φῆσαι, φήσα_ς.

Perf. Pass. Imper.: πεφάσθω let it be said.

783D

1. Hom. has φῇσθα for φῄς; subj. φήῃ and φῇσι ( cross463 c. D) for φῇ; imperf. ἔφην, φῆν, ἔφησθα, φῆσθα, ἔφης, φῆς, 3 s. ἔφην, rarely φῆ, 1 pl. φαμέν, 3 pl. ἔφασαν, φάσαν, ἔφαν, φάν.

2. Doric φα_μί, φα_τί, φαντί; imperf. ἔφα_, φᾶ; inf. φάμεν; fut. φά_σω, φά_σομαι; aor. ἔφα_σα.

3. Aeolic φᾶμι or φαῖμι, φαῖσθα, 3 s. φαῖσι, 3 pl. φαῖσι.

784

All the forms of the present indicative except φῄς are enclitic ( cross181 c). —In composition σύμφημι, σύμφῃς (but the Mss. often have συμφῄς and συμφῇς), συμφῶ, σύμφαθι.

785

In the optative φαῖτε does not occur, perhaps by chance ( cross461, cross683 a). φαῖμεν, φαῖεν are ordinary Attic; φαίημεν, φαίησαν are rare.

786

Middle forms in present, imperfect, and future are dialectic.

786D

Middle forms of φημί are rare or unknown in Attic (Plato has perf. imper. πεφάσθω), but common in other dialects; yet the pres. indicative middle is rare. Hom. has imperf. ἐφάμην, ἔφατο or φάτο, etc., imper. φάο, φάσθω, etc., inf. φάσθαι (and in choral poetry), part. φάμενος (also in Hdt.). These middle forms are active in meaning.

787

οὔ φημι means refuse (Lat. nego). In the meaning assert, φάσκω is commonly used outside of the indicative. In the meaning say often, φάσκω is used. ἔφησα and φήσω are aor. and fut. in the meanings say yes and assent. ἔφην, ἔφη (and φάναι) often correspond to Lat. inquam, inquit.

788

ἔφην and φῶ, φαίην may have an aoristic force. ἔφην and poet. ἐφάμην are both imperfect and second aorist.

-- 216 --

789

ἧμαι (ἡς-) sit is inflected only in the present system. The ς of the verb-stem appears only before -ται, -το.

PRESENTIMPERATIVEIMPERFECT
ἧμαιἥμεθαἥμηνἥμεθα
ἧσαιἧσθονἧσθεἧσοἧσοἧσθονἧσθε
ἧσταιἧσθονἧνταιἥσθω, etc.ἧστοἥσθηνἧντο

The subjunctive and optative are wanting; present infinitive ἧσθαι; participle ἥμενος.

a. Uncompounded ἧμαι occurs only in Epic, tragedy, and Herodotus. The missing tenses are supplied by ἕζομαι, ἵζω and ἵζομαι.

789D

Hom. has εἵαται, and ἕαται (twice), εἵατο, and ἕατο once (once ἧντο). ἡ- is probably the correct spelling for εἱ-.

790

In place of ἧμαι we find usually κάθ-ημαι in Attic prose and comedy. κάθημαι sometimes is perfect in meaning (I have sat, I have been seated). The ς of the verb-stem does not appear except before -το.

PRESENTIMPERFECT
IndicativeSubjunctiveOptativeImperativeIndicative
S. 1 κάθημαικαθῶμαικαθοίμηνἐκαθήμην ( cross450) or καθήμην
2 κάθησαικαθῇκαθοῖοκάθησοἐκάθησοκαθῆσο
3 κάθηταικαθῆταικαθοῖτοκαθήσθωἐκάθητοκαθῆστο or
καθῆτο
D. 2 κάθησθονκαθῆσθονκαθοῖσθονκάθησθονἐκάθησθονκαθῆσθον
3 κάθησθονκαθῆσθονκαθοίσθηνκαθήσθωνἐκαθήσθηνκαθήσθην
P. 1 καθήμεθακαθώμεθακαθοίμεθαἐκαθήμεθακαθήμεθα
2 κάθησθεκαθῆσθεκαθοῖσθεκάθησθεἐκάθησθεκαθῆσθε
3 κάθηνταικαθῶνταικαθοῖντοκαθήσθωνἐκάθηντοκαθῆντο

Infinitive: καθῆσθαι; Participle: καθήμενος.

a. The imperative has κάθου in comedy for κάθησο. In the imperfect ἐκαθήμην is used about as often as καθήμην.

b. The missing tenses are supplied by καθέζομαι, καθίζω, καθίζομαι.

790D

Hom. has 3 pl. καθείατο (καθήατο?). Hdt. has κατέαται, κατέατο; καθῆστο not καθῆτο.

791

κεῖμαι (κει-) lie, am laid, regularly used in the present and imperfect instead of the perfect and pluperfect passive of τίθημι place.

-- 217 --

PRESENTIMPERFECT
Indic.Subj.Opt.Imper.Indic.
Sing. 1 κεῖμαιἐκείμην
2 κεῖσαικεῖσοἔκεισο
3 κεῖταικέηταικέοιτοκείσθωἔκειτο
Dual 2 κεῖσθονκεῖσθονἔκεισθον
3 κεῖσθονκείσθωνἐκείσθην
Plur. 1 κείμεθαἐκείμεθα
2 κεῖσθε (δια) κέησθεκεῖσθεἔκεισθε
3 κεῖνται (κατα) κέωνται (προς) κέοιντοκείσθωνἔκειντο

Infinitive: κεῖσθαι; Participle: κείμενος.

Future: κείσομαι, κείσῃ or κείσει, κείσεται, etc.

a. In the subjunctive and optative κει- becomes κε- before a vowel ( cross43).

b. Compounds have recessive accent in the present indicative and imperative: παράκειμαι, παράκεισο, but παρακεῖσθαι.

791D

Hom. has 3 pl. pres. κείαται, κέαται, κέονται; imperf. κεῖντο, κείατο, κέατο, iter. κέσκετο; subj. κῆται, and κεῖται for χε (y) -ε-ται; fut. κείσομαι.

Hdt. has 3 sing. pres. κέεται and κεῖται, 3 pl. κέαται; imperf. ἔκειτο, pl. ἐκέατο.

792

ἠ-μί (cp. Lat. a-io) say occurs only in the present and imperfect 1 and 3 sing., and is used in parentheses (as Lat. inquam, inquit).

Forms: ἠμί, ἠσί; ἦν, ἦ. Examples: παῖ, ἠμί, παῖ boy, I say, boy! (emphatic repetition). ἦν δ' ἐγώ said I, ἦ δ' ὅς said he ( cross1113).

792D

Hom has , Doric ἠτί, Aeolic ἦσι.

793

χρή it is necessary is really an indeclinable substantive meaning necessity with the verb understood. In the present indicative ἐστί is to be supplied. Elsewhere χρή unites with the form of the verb to be supplied; as subj. χρῇ (χρὴ ᾖ), opt. χρείη (χρὴ εἴη), inf. χρῆναι (χρὴ εἶναι), part. indeclinable χρεών (χρὴ ὄν); imperf. χρῆν (χρὴ ἦν), and less commonly ἐχρῆν with an augment because the composite character of χρῆν was forgotten, fut. χρῆσται (χρὴ ἔσται).

a. ἀπόχρη it suffices has pl. ἀποχρῶσι, part. ἀποχρῶν, -χρῶσα, -χρῶν, imperf. ἀπέχρη, fut. ἀποχρήσει, aor. ἀπέχρησε.

793D

Hdt. has χρή, χρῆν, χρῆναι, but ἀπροχρᾷ, ἀποχρᾶν.

794

οἶδα (ἰδ, εἰδ-ε, οἰδ- originally with ϝ; cp. Lat. video) know is a second perfect with the meaning of a present, and formed without reduplication. The second perfect and second pluperfect are inflected as follows:

-- 218 --

SECOND PERFECTSECOND PLUPERFECT
Indic.Subj.Opt.Imper.Indic.
Sing. 1 οἶδαεἰδῶεἰδείηνᾔδηor ᾔδειν
2 οἶσθαεἰδῇςεἰδείηςἴσθιᾔδησθαor ᾔδεις
3 οἶδεεἰδῇεἰδείηἴστωᾔδει (ν)
Dual 2 ἴστονεἰδῆτονεἰδεῖτονἴστονᾖστον
3 ἴστονεἰδῆτονεἰδείτηνἴστωνᾔστην
Plur. 1 ἴσμενεἰδῶμενεἰδεῖμενor εἰδείημενᾖσμενor ᾔδεμεν
2 ἴστεεἰδῆτεεἰδεῖτεεἰδείητεἴστεᾖστεᾔδετε
3 ἴσα_σιεἰδῶσιεἰδεῖενεἰδείησανἴστωνᾖσανᾔδεσαν

Infinitive εἰδέναι; Participle εἰδώς, εἰδυῖα, εἰδός ( cross309); Verbal Adj. ἰστέος; Future εἴσομαι. Compound σύνοιδα am conscious of.

794D

1. Hom. has οἶδας α 337, ἴδμεν, ἴσα_σι (ἴσσα_σι for ἴ_σα_σι I cross36); subj. εἰδέω π 236 and ἰδέω (? Ξ cross235), εἴδομεν and εἴδετε with short thematic vowels; inf. ἴδμεναι, ἴδμεν; part. εἰδυῖα and ἰδυῖα. Pluperf. ᾔδεα, ᾔδησθα τ 93, ἠείδεις (-ης?) X 280 with η as augment ( cross433), ᾔδη, ᾔδεε, ἠείδει ι 206, 3 pl. ἴσαν for ἰδ-σαν. Fut. εἴσομαι, inf. εἰδησέμεν and -σειν.

2. Hdt. has οἶδας, ἴδμεν and οἴδαμεν (rarely), οἴδα_σι, subj. εἰδέω, plup. ᾔδεα, ᾔδεε (ᾔδει?), -ᾐδέατε, ᾔδεσαν, fut. εἰδήσω.

3. Dor. has ἴσα_μι (pl. ἴσαμεν, ἴσαντι) and οἶδα. Boeotian has ἴττω for ἴστω. Aeolic has ϝοίδημι and οἶδα.

795

The verb-stem has the meaning find out; hence the perfect οἶδα means I have found out and hence I know.

796

In Ionic and late Greek we find οἶδας, οἴδαμεν, etc. These forms are rare in Attic. οἶσθας occurs in comedy.

797

In the optative dual and plural prose writers have either the shorter or the longer forms; the poets only the shorter forms.

798

Pluperfect ᾔδειν, ᾔδεις occur in later Attic (Demosthenes), but are suspicious in earlier writers. ᾔδεισθα occurs in the best Mss. of Plato and elsewhere, but it is less correct Attic. ᾔδης is incorrect. ᾔδει is rare. ᾖστον, ᾔστην are almost entirely poetic. In the plural ᾔδειμεν, ᾔδειτε, ᾔδεισαν are post-classical. ᾔδεμεν, ᾔδετε occur rarely in the Attic poets.

799

οἶσθα is from οἰδ θα; ἴστε from ἰδ τε; ἴσθι from ἰδ θι ( cross83). ἴσμεν (older ἴδμεν) gets its ς from ἴστε ( cross87). ἴσα_σι is from ἰδ σαντι, with ς from (Hom.) ἴσαν ἰδ-σαν with the ending -σαν (cp. εἴξα_σι 704 d). ᾔδη is for ἠ-είδη with η as augment ( cross433).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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