Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The futures of verbs in -μι do not differ in formation and inflection from those of verbs in .

τίθημι: θήσω, θήσομαι, τεθήσομαι; ἵστημι: στήσω, στήσομαι, σταθήσομαι, ἑστήξω; ἵ_ημι: ἥσω, -ἤσομαι, -ἑθήσομαι; δίδωμι: δώσω, -δώσομαι, δοθήσομαι; δείκνυ_μι: δείξω, δείξομαι, δειχθήσομαι, δεδείξομαι (late) or δεδειγμένος ἔσομαι; μείγνυ_μι: μείξω, -μιχθήσομαι, μιγήσομαι (poet.), μεμείξομαι (poet.); πήγνυ_μι: πήξω, παγήσομαι.

a. ἑστήξω is the only future perfect from a μι-verb ( cross584).


The verbs τίθημι, ἵ_ημι, δίδωμι form the singular active of the first aorist in -κ-α, thus, ἔθηκα, ἔδωκα, ἧκα. The forms of the second aorist ( cross756) are generally used in the dual and plural and in the other moods.

a. The form in κ rarely appears outside of the singular, chiefly in the 3 pl., as ἔδωκαν ( = ἔδοσαν), less frequently in the 1 and 2 pl., as ἐδώκαμεν, -ατε.

b. That κ was not a suffix but a part of an alternative root appears from a comparison of θηκ- in ἔθηκα and perf. τέθηκα with fēc- in fēci.

c. ἵστημι has ἔστησα I set, placed (mid. ἐστησάμην), to be distinguished from 2 aor. ἔστην I stood.

d. ἐθηκάμην is un-Attic; ἡκάμην (in comp.) is rare and probably found only in the indic.; ἐδωκάμην is very late.


Hom. has ἔθηκαν, ἔδωκαν, ἐνήκαμεν, θήκατο; Hdt. συνθήκαντο; Pind. θηκάμενος.


Indicative.—τίθημι, ἵ_ημι, δίδωμι use the short grade forms in dual and plural active: ἔ-θε-τον, ἔ-θε-μεν, ἔθε-σαν; εἷ-τον, εἷ-μεν, εἷ-σαν (for ἐ-ἑ-τον, etc.); ἔ-δο-μεν, ἔ-δο-σαν. In the singular the κ-forms, ἔθηκα, ἧκα, ἔδωκα, are used. ἵστημι has ἔστην, ἔστης, ἔστη (for ἐστητ, 464 c), ἔστημεν, etc. (p. cross138).

a. σβέννυ_μι extinguish is the only verb in -νυ_μι forming a second aorist (ἔσβην, σβῶ, σβείην, σβῆθι, σβῆναι, σβείς).

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b. The middle uses the weak stems -θε-, -ἑ-, -δο- in ἑ-θί-μην, -εἵμην (for ἐ-ἑ-μην), ἐ-δό-μην (only in composition). For the loss of ς in -σο (ἔθου, ἔδου) see cross465 b.

c. In prose the only uncompounded second aorists middle are ἐπριάμην bought (pres. ὠνέομαι) and ὠνήμην derived benefit (ὀνίνημι). ὠνήμην keeps η (poet. ὄνησο, ὀνήμενος). ἵστημι does not make the form ἐσταμην.


Hom. has older for -σαν in ἔσταν (he uses ἔστησαν also), Dor. has ἔθεν, ἔσταν, ἔδον. For the iterative στά-σκε, δό-σκον see cross495.

c. D. In poetry: ἐπτάμην (prose -ἐπτόμην) from πέταμαι fly; Hom. πλῆτο approached, ἔβλητο was hit (others, cross688).


Second Aorist Subjunctive.—All the forms of the 2 aor. subj. are due to contraction of the thematic vowel with the weak stem-vowel. Thus θῶ, etc., from θέω, θέῃς, θέῃ, θέωμεν, etc.; , etc., from ἕω, ἕῃς, ἕωσι; δῶ, etc., from δόω, δόῃς, δόῃ; στῶ, etc., from στέω, στέῃς, etc., with ε from η before a vowel. Cp. cross682.

a. ἐπριάμην has πρίωμαι with ώη in place of the final vowel of the stem ( cross749 b).


The subjunctive shows traces of an earlier double form of inflection:

1. With short thematic vowel: θήεις, θήει, θήετον, θήομεν, θήετε, θήουσι. Homer: θήομεν, στήομεν, -στήετον, κιχήομεν, δώομεν, ἀποθήομαι.

2. With long thematic vowel: θήω, θήῃς, θήῃ, θήητον, θήωμεν, θήητε, θήωσι. Hom. θήω, θήῃς, θήῃ, στήῃς, στήῃ, ἀνήῃ, δώῃ or δώῃσι, περιστήωσι, δώωσι.

By shortening of the long vowel of the stem we obtain a third form:

3. θέω, θέῃς, θέῃ, θέητον, θέωμεν, θέητε, θέωσι. Hom. ἀφέῃ, θέωμεν, στέωμεν, Hdt. θέω, θέωμεν, θέωσι, θέωμαι, στέωμεν, ἀποστέωσι, Aeolic θέω.

4. From 3 are derived the contracted forms θῶ, θῇς, θῇ, etc. Hom. ἀναστῇ, δῷς, δῷ or δῷσι, δῶμεν; Dor. δῶντι; Hdt. -θῇ, -θῆται; δῶμεν, -δῶτε, δῶσι.

N.—In Hom. the Mss. often have ει for η of the stem, as θείω, βείω, θείομεν, κιχείομεν.


Second Aorist Optative.—The forms of the optative of the second aorist are made and inflected like those of the present except for the reduplication. Thus, in the active: θείην (θε-ίη-ν), σταίην (στα-ίη-ν), δοῖμεν (δό-ι_-μεν), δοῖεν (δό-ιε-ν). The shorter forms are preferred in the dual and plural, and poetry has only these; prose admits either the longer or the shorter forms.

a. In the 2 pl. cases of -ιη-τε (δοίητε) are more numerous than -ι-τε; but they usually lack metrical warrant.

b. Second aorists of stems in υ lack the optative in Attic.

c. In the middle: θείμην (θε-ί_-μην), δοίμην (δο-ί_-μην), -εἵμην (ἑ-ί_-μην). For θοίμεθα see cross746 c. For the accent of πρίαιο see cross424 c, N. 2.


Hom. has σταίησαν P 733, the only case of -ιη- outside of the singular; δύ_η (for δυ-ίη), ἐκδῦμεν (for -δύ-ι_-μεν), and φθῖτο (for φθί-ι_-το) from φθί_νω perish.


Second Aorist Imperative.—On θέ-ς, δό-ς, ἕ-ς, see cross466. 1. b. These verbs show the weak form of the stem (θέ-τω, θέ-ντων). ἵστημι and σβέννυ_μι have -θι in στῆ-θι, σβῆ-θι. For στῆ-θι the poets may use -στα_ in composition, as ἀπόστα_ stand off.

a. The middle adds -σο, which loses its ς after a short vowel, as in θοῦ for θέ-σο, δοῦ for δό-σο, πρίω (and poet. πρία-σο). ς is not dropped after a long vowel (ὄνησο). Cp. cross465 b, N. 2.

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b. In composition περίθες, ἀπόδος, παράστηθι, ἐνθοῦ, προδοῦ; but κατάθου, περιδου, περίδοσθε ( cross426 b-c).

c. For the 3 pl. θέτωσαν, δότωσαν, ἕσθωσαν, see cross466. 2. b.


Hom. has θέο and ἔνθεο.


Second Aorist Infinitive.—The active adds -εναι in θεῖναι (θέ-εναι), στῆναι (στή-εναι), δοῦναι (δό-εναι), εἷναι (ἕ-εναι). The middle adds -σθαι, as θέ-σθαι.


Hom. has θέμεναι, θέμεν; στήμεναι; δόμεναι, δόμεν; and θεῖναι, στῆναι, δοῦναι. Dor. has θέμεν, δόμεν, στᾶμεν.


Second Aorist Participle.—The active adds -ντ- like the present: θείς (θε-ντ-ς), θεῖσα (θε-ντ-yα), θέν (θε-ντ); στά_ς (στα-ντ-ς), στᾶσα (στα-ντ-yα), στάν (στα-ντ). The middle adds -μενος, as θέ-μενος.


FIRST AND SECOND PERFECT (AND PLUPERFECT) ACTIVE Indicative.—The perfect of τίθημι is τέθηκα. A later form τέθεικα, not found on Attic inscriptions till after 200 B.C. and due to the analogy of εἷκα, still appears in some texts. τέθεκα is Doric. For καθέστακα Attic used καταστήσα_ς ἔχω (cp. cross599 b).

a. The dual and plural of the second perfect and pluperfect of ἵστημι ( cross417) are formed without κ: ἕστατον, ἕσταμεν (without augment in the pluperf.), ἑστᾶσι from ἑ-στα-αντι, pluperf. ἕστα-σαν. The singular is supplied by the 1 perf. ἕστηκα I stand.


Subjunctive.—ἑστήκω and ἑστῶ appear in prose and poetry, ἑστηκὼς ὦ in prose.


Optative.—ἑστήκοιμι occurs in comp. in prose, ἀφεστῶτες εἶεν in Plato, τεθηκὼς εἴης and δεδωκότες εἶεν in Demosthenes. ἑσταίην is poetical.


Imperative.—ἕσταθι is poetical.


Infinitive and Participle.—ἑστάναι and ἑστώς are much more common than ἑστηκέναι and ἑστηκώς.


Hom. has ἑστάμεναι and ἑστάμεν, ἑσταώς, -αότος. Hdt. has ἑστεώς, -εῶτος. Doric has -εῖα for -υῖα (ἑστα_κεῖα).


τέθειμαι even in composition is rare and is unknown on Attic inscriptions. For the pass. perf. κεῖμαι ( cross791) was used. Doric has τέθεμαι.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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