Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Most verbs in inflect the second aorist according to the ω-conjugation; some inflect it according to the μι-conjugation.


The inflection of most second aorists of ω-verbs is like that of an imperfect of ω-verbs in the indicative, and like that of a present in the other moods.

ἐ-λιπό-μηνἐ-λυ_ό-μηνλιποῦ ( cross424 b. 2)λύ_ου
λίπωλύ_ωλιπεῖν (λιπέ-εν, 424 c)λύ_ειν (λύ_ε-εν)

For the loss of ς in -σο in the second person singular see cross465 b.


Hom. has the infinitives εἰπέμεναι, εἰπέμεν, εἰπεῖν. For θανέειν (Attic θανεῖν) etc., θανέεν should be read. -έειν in Hdt. is erroneous. Doric has -ῆν, as μολῆν (βλώσκω go). Aeolic has -ην, as λάβην.


A number of ω-verbs form their second aorists without a thematic vowel, herein agreeing with the second aorists of μι-verbs. Cp. ἔδυ_ν p. 140. The second aorist of γι-γνώ-σκω know is inflected as follows.

-- 197 --


The indicative is inflected like ἔστην (p. cross138); the subjunctive, like δῶ (p. cross138).


a. We expect ἔγνοτον, ἔγνομεν, etc. ( cross551), but the strong stem γνω- has been transferred to the dual and plural. So also in ἔβην, ἔφθην, ἑά_λων.—Subjunctive βῶ, βῇς, βῇ, βῆτον, βῶμεν, βῆτε, βῶσι. On the formation of the subjunctive see cross757 D.


ἔγνον, from ἐγνων (τ) by 40, is found in Pind. Hom. has ἔδυν, ἔτλαν, ἔκταν; Pind. ἔφυν.—Hom. has βατην and βήτην.—Hom. has βλήεται, ἅλεται. -Subj.: Hom. has γνώω ἁλώω, γνώῃς γνῷς, γνώῃ γνῷ, ἐμβήῃ ἀναβῇ, γνῶτον, γνώομεν γνῶμεν, -βήομεν φθέωμεν, γνώωσι γνῶσιν βῶσιν φθέωσιν.


The optative is inflected like δοίην (p. cross138).

γνοίηνγνοῖμεν or γνοίημεν
γνοίηςγνοῖτον or γνοίητονγνοῖτε or γνοίητε
γνοίηγνοίτην or γνοιήτηνγνοῖεν or γνοίησαν

a. So βαίην, βαῖτον or βαίητον, βαῖμεν or βαίημεν. In the 2 plur. the Mss. of prose writers have only -ιητε (γνοίητε, -βαίητε); but -ιητε is not attested by the evidence of verse.


The imperative is inflected like στῆθι (p. cross139).

γνῶθι, γνώτωγνῶτον, γνώτωνγνῶτε, γνόντων

a. In composition διάγνωθι, ἀνάβηθι ( cross423). For βῆθι (from βαίνω) -βα_ in composition occurs in poetry, as ἀνάβα_.


The infinitive adds -εναι, as γνῶναι from γνώ-εναι (like στῆναι from στή-εναι). In composition διαγνῶναι ( cross426 d).


Hom. has γνώμεναι, δύ_μεναι, κτάμεναι, and -κτάμεν.


The participle adds -ντ-, as masc. γνούς from γνοντ-ς, fem. γνοῦσα from γνοντ-yα, neut. γνόν from γνον (τ). See cross301. In composition διαγνούς ( cross426 d).

a. Before ντ the long vowel ω is regularly shortened to ο by 40.


The following ω-verbs have second aorists of the μι form.

ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-) am captured, ἑά_λων or ἥλων (ἁλῶ, ἁλοίην, ἁλῶναι, ἁλούς).

βαίνω (βα-) go, ἔβην (βῶ, βαίην, βῆθι and also -βα_ in composition, βῆναι, βά_ς).

βιόω (βιο-) live, ἐβίων (βιῶ, βιῴην, βιῶναι, βιούς). Hom. βιώτω imper.

γηράσκω (γηρα-) grow old, γηρᾶναι poet., γηρά_ς Hom.

γιγνώσκω (γνο-, γνω-) know, ἔγνων (γνῶ, γνοίην, γνῶθι, γνῶναι, γνούς).

-διδρά_σκω (δρα_-) run, only in composition, -έδρα_ν (-δρῶ, -δραίην, -δρᾶναι, -δρά_ς). Hdt. has ἔδρην, δρῆναι, δρά_ς in composition.

δύ_ω (δυ_-) enter ἔδυ_ν entered inflected p. 140 (δύ_ω, opt. Hom. δύ_η and ἔκδυ_μεν for δυ-ίη, ἐκδύ-ι_-μεν; δῦθι, δῦναι, δύ_ς).

ἔχω (σχε-) have, σχές imper.

-- 198 --

κτείνω (κτεν-, κτα-) kill, ἔκταν, ἔκτας, ἔκτα, ἔκταμεν, 3 pl. ἔκταν 551 D, subj. κτέωμεν, inf. κτάμεναι κτάμεν, part κτά_ς; ἐκτάμην was killed (κτάσθαι, κτάμενος); all poetic forms.

πέτομαι (πετ-, πτε-, πτα-) fly, poet. ἔπτην (πταίην, πτά_ς), middle ἐπτάμην (πτάσθαι, πτάμενος). πτῶ, πτῆθι, πτῆναι are late.

πί_νω (πι-) drink, πῖθι imper.

σκέλλω in ἀποσκέλλω (σκελ-, σκλε-) dry up, ἀποσκλῆναι.

τλα- endure, fut. τλήσομαι, poetic ἔτλην (τλῶ, τλαίην, τλῆθι, τλῆναι, τλά_ς).

φθάνω (φθα-) anticipate, ἔφθην (φθῶ, φθαίην, φθῆναι, φθά_ς).

φύ_ω (φυ_-) produce, ἔφυ_ν was produced, am (φύω subj., φῦναι, φύ_ς cross308).


The following ω-verbs have in poetry (especially in Homer) second aorists of the μι form: ἅλλομαι (ἆλσο, ἆλτο), ἀπαυράω (ἀπούρα_ς), ἀραρίσκω (ἄρμενος), ἄω (ἄ_μεναι), βάλλω (ξυμβλήτην, ἔβλητο), βιβρώσκω (ἔβρων), root γεν- (γέντο grasped), δέχομαι (δέκτο), Epic κιχά_νω (ἐκίχην, κιχήω, κιχείη, κιχῆναι and κιχήμεναι, κιχείς and κιχήμενος; properly from κίχημι), κλάω (ἀπόκλα_ς), κλύω (κλῦθι, κέκλυθι), κτίζω (κτίμενος), root λεχ- (ἔλεκτο laid himself to rest), λύ_ω (λύτο), οὐτάω (οὖτα, οὐτάμενος), πάλλω (πάλτο), πελάζω (ἐπλήμην), πέρθω (πέρθαι περθ-σθαι), πλώω (ἔπλων), πνυ_- (ἄμπνυ_το revived), πτήσσω (καταπτήτην), σεύω (ἐσσύμην, ἔσυτο, σύμενος), φθίνω (ἐφθίμην), χέω (ἐχύμην, χύμενος).

ἔλεκτο, πάλτο are properly first aorists (for ἐλεκ-ς-το, παλ-ς-το), ς being lost between two consonants ( cross103).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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