Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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-αω Verbs in Homer.—Hom. leaves -αω verbs open 64 times, as ναιετάω, -άουσι, ὑλάει, ἀοιδιάουσα, γοάοιμεν, τηλεθάοντας. When contracted, -αω verbs have the Attic forms, as ὁρῶ, ὁρᾷς, ὁρᾷ; as πειρᾷ makest trial from πειράε- (ς) αι from πειράομαι; ἠρῶ didst pray from ἠράε- (ς) ο from ἀράομαι.


When uncontracted, verbs in -αω often show in the Mss. of Hom., not the original open forms, but “assimilated” forms of the concurrent vowels, αε, αει, αη giving a double a sound by α prevailing over the e sound; αο, αω, αοι, αου giving a double o sound by the o sound prevailing over the α. One of the vowels is commonly lengthened, rarely both.

αε = (1)αα: ὁράεσθαι ὁράασθαι, ἀγά-
εσθε ἀγάασθε.
= (2)α_α: μνάεσθαι μνά_ασθαι, ἠγά-
εσθε ἠγά_ασθε.
αει = (1)αᾳ: ὁράεις ὁράᾳς, ἐάει ἐάᾳ.
= (2)α_ᾳ: μενοινάει μενοινά_ᾳ.
αῃ = (1)αᾳ: ἐάῃς ἐάᾳς.
= (2)α_ᾳ: μνάῃ wooest 2 sing. mid.
= μνά_ᾳ.
αο = (1)οω: ὁράοντες ὁρόωντες.
= (2)ωο: ἡβάοντες ἡβώοντες, μνά-
οντο μνώοντο.
αω = (1)οω: ὁράω ὁρόω, βοάων
= (2)ωω: μενοινάω μενοινώω.
αοι = (1)οῳ: ὁράοιτε ὁρόῳτε.
= (2)ωοι:ἡβάοιμι ἡβώοιμι.
αου = (1)οω: ὁράουσα ὁρόωσα, ὁρά-
ουσι ὁρόωσι, ἀλάου (from
ἀλάεο imper. of ἀλάομαι) =
= (2)ωω: ἡβάουσα ἡβώωσα, δρά-
ουσι δρώωσι. ου here is
a spurious diphthong (6)
derived from -οντ-: ὁρα-
οντ-yα, ἡβαοντ-yα, δρά_οντι;
or by contraction in ἀλάου
from ἀλάεο.

N.—ἀλόω from ἀλάεο wander is unique. γελώοντες is from γελώω ( cross641).


The assimilated forms are used only when the second vowel (in the unchanged form) stood in a syllable long by nature or position. Hence ὁροωμεν, ὁραατε, ὁραατο, do not occur for ὁράομεν, etc. (μνωόμενος for μνα_όμενος is an exception.) The first vowel is lengthened only when the metre requires it, as in ἡβώοντες for ἡβάοντες ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘. Thus two long vowels do not occur in succession except to fit the form to the verse, as μενοινώω for μενοινάω; but ἡβώοιμι, not ἡβώῳμι. When the first vowel is metrically lengthened, the second vowel is not lengthened, though it may be long either in a final syllable (as in μενοινά_ᾳ) or when it represents the spurious diphthong ου from -οντ- (as in ἡβώωσα, δρώωσι for ἡβάουσα, δρά_ουσι from -οντyα, -οντι).


The assimilated forms include the “Attic” future in -αω from -ασω ( cross539); as ἐλόωσι ( = ἐλάουσι), κρεμόω, δαμάᾳ, δαμόωσι.


The assimilated forms are found only in the artificial language of Homer, Hesiod, and their imitators, and nowhere in the living speech. They are commonly explained as derived from the contracted forms by a process of ‘distraction,’ and as inserted in the text for the sake of the metre. Thus ὁρᾷς,

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βοῶντες, the spoken forms which had taken the place of original ὁράεις, βοάοντες, in the text, were expanded into ὁράᾳς, βοόωντες, by repetition of the α and ο. While the restoration of the original uncontracted forms is generally possible, and is adopted in several modern editions, a phonetic origin of many of the forms in question is still sought by some scholars who regard ὁρόω as an intermediate stage between ὁράω and ὁρῶ. It will be observed, however, that the forms in 648 can be derived only from the unassimilated forms.


In the imperfect contraction generally occurs, and assimilation is rare.


Some verbs show εο for αο, as ἤντεον, τρόπεον, μενοίνεον, ποτέονται. Cp. cross649, cross653.


-αω verbs in Herodotus.—Hdt. contracts -αω verbs as they are contracted in Attic. In many cases before an ο sound the Mss. substitute ε for α (τολμέω, ὁρέων, ἐφοίτεον). This ε is never found in all the forms of the same verb, and the Mss. generally disagree on each occurrence of any form.—Hdt. always has -ῴην, -ῴμην, in the optative.


-εω verbs in Homer.—a. Hom. rarely contracts εω and εο (except in the participle). In a few cases ευ appears for εο, as ποιεύμην; rarely for εου, as τελεῦσι. When the metre allows either -εε and -εει, or -ει, the open forms are slightly more common. ει is often necessary to admit a word into the verse (as ἡγεῖσθαι, ἐφίλει), and is often found at the verse-end. -έ-ε-αι, -έ-ε-ο, in the 2 sing. mid. may become -εῖαι, -εῖο, or -έαι, -έο, by the expulsion of one ε; as μυ_θεῖαι or μυ_θέαι sayest, αἰδεῖο show regard.

b. νεικείω, τελείω, from -ες-yω (νεικες-, τελες-) are older forms than νεικέω, τελέω. See cross488 d, cross624. θείω, πλείω, πνείω show metrical lengthening ( cross28 D.).

c. On -ημεναι in Hom. see cross657.


-εω verbs in Herodotus.—a. Hdt. generally leaves εο, εω, εου, open, except when a vowel precedes the ε, in which case we find ευ for εο (ἀγνοεῦντες). In the 3 plur. -έουσι is kept except in ποιεῦσι. For -έ-εο in the 2 sing. mid. we find έ-ο in αἰτέο. εε, εει, in stems of more than one syllable, are usually uncontracted in the Mss., but this is probably an error. δεῖ it is necessary and δεῖν are never written otherwise.—The Ion. ευ for εο, εου, occurs rarely in tragedy.

b. In the optative Hdt. has -έοι after a consonant, as καλέοι, but -οῖ after a vowel, as ποιοῖμι, ποιοῖ.


Verbs in -οω.—a. Hom. always uses the contracted forms except in the case of such as show assimilation like that in -αω verbs.

οο = (1) οω : δηϊόοντο δηϊόωντο.οοι οῳ : δηιόοιεν δηιόῳεν.
(2) ωο : ὑπνόοντας ὑπνώοντας.οου οω : ἀρόουσι ἀρόωσι.

b. Hdt. contracts -οω verbs as in Attic. Forms with ευ for ου, as δικαιεῦσι, ἐδικαίευν, are incorrect.


Doric.—Doric ( cross59 D.) contracts αε and αη to η; αει and αῃ to ῃ; αο, αω, to α_ except in final syllables: τι_μῶ, τι_μῇς, τι_μῇ, τι_μᾶμες, τι_μῆτε, τι_μᾶντι, τί_μη, τι_μῆν. Monosyllabic stems have ω from α ο or α ω. Some verbs in -αω have alternative forms in -εω ( cross648), as ὁρέω, τι_μέω.

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The contractions of -εω verbs in Doric may be illustrated thus:

Severer DoricMilder Doric
φιλέω, φιλῶ, φιλίωφιλέω, φιλῶ
φιλεῖς, φιλές(?)φιλεῖς, φιλές(?)
φιλέομες, φιλίομες, φιλίωμες, φιλῶμεςφιλέομες, φιλοῦμες, φιλεῦμες
φιλέοντι, φιλίοντι, φιλόντιφιλέοντι, φιλοῦντι, φιλεῦντι

a. ιω for εο is a diphthong. ευ for εο is common in Theocritus. In Cretan ι ( = y) for ε is often expelled (κοσμόντες κοσμέοντες).


Verbs in -οω contract οο and οε to ω in Severer Doric and to ου in Milder Doric.


Aeolic.—In Aeolic contract verbs commonly pass into the μι-conjugation: τί_μαιμι, -αις, -αι, τί_μα_μεν, τί_μα_τε, τί_μαισι, imperfect, ἐτί_μα_ν, ἐτί_μα_ς, ἐτί_μα_, etc. inf. τί_μα_ν, part. τί_μαις, -αντος, mid. τί_μα_μαι, inf. τι_μά_μεναι. So φίλημι, φίλημεν, φίλητε, φίλεισι, ἐφίλην, inf. φίλην, part. φίλεις, -εντος. Thus ὄρημι from ὀρέω = Att. ὁράω, κάλημι, αἴνημι. So also δήλωμι, 3 pl. δήλοισι, inf. δήλων. Besides these forms we find a few examples of the earlier inflection in -αω, -εω, -οω, but these forms usually contract except in a few cases where ε is followed by an ο sound (ποτέονται). From other tenses, e.g. the fut. in -ησω, η has been transferred to the present in ἀδικήω, ποθήω.


Hom. has several cases of contract verbs inflected according to the μι- conjugation in the 3 dual: συ_λή-την (συ_λάω spoil), προσαυδή-την (προσαυδάω speak to), ἀπειλή-την (ἀπειλέω threaten), ὁμαρτή-την (ὁμαρτέω meet); also σάω 3 sing. imperf. (σαόω keep safe). In the infinitive -ημεναι, as γοήμεναι (γοάω), πεινήμεναι (πεινά_ω, cross641), φιλήμεναι (φιλέω), φορήμεναι and φορῆναι (φορέω). But ἀγι_νέω has ἀγι_νέμεναι.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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