Verbs which end in ω in the first person present indicative active, and deponent verbs in which the personal endings are preceded by the thematic vowel, have the following peculiarities of inflection:
a. The thematic vowel usually appears in all tenses except the perfect and pluperfect middle (passive) and the aorist passive (except in the subjunctive). These three tenses are inflected like μι-verbs.
b. The present and future singular active end in -ω, -εις, -ει ( cross463). The ending -μι appears only in the optative.
c. The thematic vowel ο unites in the indicative with the ending -ντι, and forms -ουσι ( cross463 d).
d. The third plural active of past tenses ends in -ν.
e. The imperative active has no personal ending in the second person singular except -ο-ν in the first aorist.
f. Except in the perfect and pluperfect the middle endings -σαι and -σο lose ς and contract with the final vowel of the tense-stem ( cross465 a, b). In the optative contraction cannot take place (λύ_οι- (ς) ο, λύ_σαι- (ς) ο).
g. The infinitive active has -ειν (for -ε-εν) in the present, future, and second aorist; -ε-ναι in the perfect; and -αι in the aorist.
h. Active participles with stems in -οντ- have the nominative masculine in -ων.626
In 627-716 the method of inflection of all ω-verbs, both vowel and consonant, is described. The examples are generally taken from vowel verbs, but the statements hold true of consonant verbs.
Forms of ω-verbs which are inflected according to the non-thematic conjugation are included under the ω-verbs.
For the formation of the present stem see cross497-531.627
Indicative.—Vowel and consonant verbs in -ω inflect the present by attaching the primary endings (when there are any) to the present stem in -όε
(-ώη-). λύ_ω, τι_μῶ (τι_μά-ω), φαίνω, λείπω. The imperfect attaches the secondary endings to the present stem with the augment. See the paradigms, pp. 114, 120. For the active forms -ω, -εις, -ει, see cross463.
-ῃ and -ει are found in the pres. fut. mid. and pass., fut. perf. pass. ε- (ς) αι yields ῃ (written EI in the Old Attic alphabet, 2 a), which is usually given as the proper spelling in the texts of the tragic poets, whereas ει is printed in the texts of prose and comedy. ει was often written for ηι (ῃ) after 400 B.C., as in ἀγαθεῖ τύχει, since both had the sound of a close long e. It is often impossible to settle the spelling; but βούλει
Subjunctive.—The present subjunctive adds the primary endings to the tense-stem with the long thematic vowel. For the endings -ῃς, -ῃ see cross463. Thus, λύ_ω, -ῃς, -ῃ, τι_μᾷς ( = τι_μά-ῃς), τι_μᾷ ( = τι_μά-ῃ), φαίνωμεν, -ητε, -ωσι (from -ωντι). Middle λύ_ω-μαι, λύ_ῃ ( = λύ_η-σαι), λύ_η-ται; τι_μᾶ-σθον ( = τι_μάη-σθον); φαινώ-μεθα, φαίνη-σθε, φαίνω-νται.630
Optative.—To the tense-stem ending in the thematic vowel (always ο) are added the mood-sign -ι_- (-ιε-) or -ιη- ( cross459, cross460) and the secondary personal endings (except -μι for -ν, where the mood sign is -ι_-, cross459). In the 3 pl. we have -ιε-ν.
a. The final vowel of the tense-stem (ο) contracts with the mood suffix (ι_), ο-ι_ becoming οι. Thus λύ_οιμι (λύ_ο-ι_-μι), λύ_οις (λύ_ο-ι_-ς), λύ_οιεν (λύ_ο-ιε-ν), λυ_οίμην (λυ_ο-ί_-μην), λύ_οιο (λύ_ο-ι_-σο).631
Imperative.—The present imperative endings are added to the tensestem with the thematic vowel ε (ο before -ντων). The 2 pers. sing. active has no ending, but uses the tense-stem instead (παίδευε, φαῖνε). In the middle -σο loses its ς ( cross466, cross2 a); λύ_ου from λύ_ε-σο, φαίνου from φαίνε-σο. On the forms in -ετωσαν and -εσθωσαν for -οντων and -εσθων, see cross466, cross2 b.632
Infinitive.—The present stem unites with -εν: λύ_ε-εν λύ_ειν, λείπε-εν λείπειν. In the middle (passive) -σθαι is added: λύ_ε-σθαι, λείπε-σθαι.632D
Severer Doric has ἔχην and ἔχεν; Milder Doric has ἔχειν; Aeolic has ἔχην. Hom. has ἀμύ_νειν, ἀμυ_νέμεναι, ἀμυ_νέμεν.633
Participle.—The present participle adds -ντ- to the present stem ending in the thematic vowel ο. Stems in -ο-ντ have the nominative singular in -ων. Thus masc. λύ_ων from λυ_οντ-ς, fem. λύ_ουσα from λυ_οντ-yα, neut. λῦον from λυ_ον (τ). See cross301 a and N.633D
Aeolic has fem. -οισα in the present and second aorist ( cross37 D. 3), λύ_οισα, λίποισα.634
A few ω-verbs in the present and imperfect show forms of the μι-conjugation. These are usually Epic.
δέχομαι, 3 pl. δέχαται
in some passages is a second aorist ( cross688).—ἔδω
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].