Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive is the reduplicated verb-stem, to which the personal endings are directly attached. λέλυ-μαι I have loosed myself or have been loosed, ἐ-λελύ-μην; δέδο-μαι (δί-δω-μι give), δέδειγ-μαι (δείκ-νυ_-μι show). On the euphonic changes of consonants, see cross409.


A thematic vowel precedes the ending in Hom. μέμβλεται (μέλω care for), ὀρώρεται (ο'ρνυμι rouse).

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The stem of the perfect middle is in general the same as that of the first perfect active as regards its vowel ( cross557), the retention or expulsion of ν ( cross559 a), and metathesis ( cross559 d).

τι_μά-ω honour τετί_μη-μαι ἐτετι_μήμην; ποιέ-ω make πεποίη-μαι ἐπεποιήμην; γράφ-ω write γέγραμ-μαι; κρί_νω (κριν-) judge κέκρι-μαι; τείνω (τεν-) stretch τέταμαι; φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt ἔφθαρ-μαι; βάλλω (βαλ-) throw βέβλη-μαι ἐβεβλήμην; πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέπεισμαι ἐπεπείσμην.


The vowel of the perfect middle stem should show the weak form when there is variation between ε (ει, ευ): ο (οι, ου): α (ι, υ). The weak form in α appears regularly in verbs containing a liquid ( cross479): that in υ, in πέπυσμαι from πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-, πευθ-) learn, poet. ἔσσυμαι hasten from σεύω (συ-, σευ-) urge.


The vowel of the present has often displaced the weak form, as in πέπλεγμαι (πλέκ-ω weave), λέλειμμαι (λείπ-ω leave), πέπεισμαι (πείθ-ω persuade), ἔζευγμαι (ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke).


A final short vowel of the verb-stem is not lengthened in the verbs given in 488 a. ε is added ( cross485) in many verbs. For metathesis see cross492; for Attic reduplication see cross446.


ν is retained in endings not beginning with μ, as φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφανται, πέφανθε. Before -μαι, we have μ in ὤξυμμαι from ὀξύ_νω (ὀξυν-) sharpen, but usually ν is replaced by ς. On the insertion of ς, see cross489.


Future Perfect.—The stem of the future perfect is formed by adding -σόε- to the stem of the perfect middle. A vowel immediately preceding -σόε- is always long, though it may have been short in the perfect middle.

λύ_-ω loose, λελύ_-σομαι I shall have been loosed (perf. mid. λέλυ-μαι), δέ-ω bind δεδή-σομαι (perf. mid. δέδε-μαι), γράφ-ω write γεγράψ-ομαι, καλέω call κεκλήσομαι.


Hom. has δεδέξουαι, μεμνήσομαι, κεκλήσῃ, κεχολώσεται; κεκαδήσομαι, πεφιδήσεται are from reduplicated aorists.


The future perfect usually has a passive force. The active meaning is found where the perfect middle or active has an active meaning ( cross1946, cross1947).

κεκτήσομαι shall possess (κέκτημαι possess), κεκρά_ξομαι shall cry out (κέκρα_γα cry out), κεκλάγξομαι shall scream (κέκλαγγα scream), μεμνήσομαι shall remember (μέμνημαι remember), πεπαύσομαι shall have ceased (πέπαυμαι have ceased).


Not all verbs can form a future perfect; and few forms of this tense occur outside of the indicative: διαπεπολεμησόμενον Thuc. 7. 25 is the only sure example of the participle in classical Greek. The infinitive μεμνήσεσθαι occurs in Hom. and Attic prose.


The periphrastic construction ( cross601) of the perfect middle (passive) participle with ἔσομαι may be used for the future perfect, as ἐψευσμένος ἔσομαι I shall have been deceived.

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Future Perfect Active.—The future perfect active of most verbs is formed periphrastically ( cross600). Two perfects with a present meaning, ἕστηκα I stand (ἵστημι set) and τέθνηκα I am dead (θνῄσκω), form the future perfects ἑστήξω I shall stand, τεθνήξω I shall be dead.


Hom. has κεχαρήσω and κεχαρήσομαι from χαίρω (χαρ-) rejoice.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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