Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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544

Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ lose ς and lengthen their vowel in compensation ( cross37): α to η (after ι or ρ to α_), ε to ει, ι to ι_, υ to υ_.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, ἔφηνα for ἐφανσα; περαίνω (περαν-) finish, ἐπέρα_να for ἐπερανσα; στέλλω (στελ-) send, ἔστειλα for ἐστελσα; κρί_νω (κριν-) judge, ἔκρι_να for ἐκρινσα; ἅλλομαι (ἁλ-) leap, ἡλάμην for ἡλσαμην.

a. Some verbs in -αινω (-αν-) have -α_να instead of -ηνα; as γλυκαίνω sweeten ἐγλύκα_να. So ἰσχναίνω make thin, κερδαίνω gain, κοιλαίνω hollow out, λιπαίνω fatten, ὀργαίνω be angry, πεπαίνω make ripe. Cp. cross30 a.

b. The poetic verbs retaining ς in the future ( cross536) retain it also in the aorist.

c. αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise is treated as if its verb-stem were ἀ_ρ- (contracted from ἀερ- in ἀείρω): aor. ἦρα, ἄ_ρω, ἄ_ραιμι, ἆρον, ἆραι, ἄ_ρας, and ἠράμην, ἄ_ρωμαι, ἀ_ραίμην, ἄ_ρασθαι, ἀ_ράμενος.

d. ἤνεγκα is used as the first aorist of φέρω bear. εἶπα is rare for εἶπον ( cross549).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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