The first aorist stem is formed by adding the tense suffix -σα to the verb-stem: ἔ-λυ_-σα
a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades ( cross476), the tense-suffix is added to the strong stem: πείθω ἔπεισα, τήκω ἔτηξα, πνέω ἔπνευσα, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) ἔστησα, ἐστησάμην.
N.—τίθημι (θε-, θη-)
Mixed Aorists.—Hom. has some forms of the first aorist with the thematic vowel (όε) of the second aorist; as ἄξετε, ἄξεσθε (ἄγω
Vowel Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in a vowel lengthen a short final vowel before the tense-suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ). Thus, τι_μάω ἐτί_μησα, ἐάω εἴα_σα ( cross431), φιλέω ἐφίλησα.
a. χέω (χυ-, χευ-, χεϝ-)
Homeric ἠλευάμην and ἠλεάμην
b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel see cross488.543bD
Hom. often has original σς, as γελάω ἐγέλασσα, τελέω ἐτέλεσσα; in others by analogy, as ὄλλυ_μι ὄλεσσα, ὄμνυ_μι ὄμοσσα, καλέω κάλεσσα.544
Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ lose ς and lengthen their vowel in compensation ( cross37): α to η (after ι or ρ to α_), ε to ει, ι to ι_, υ to υ_.
a. Some verbs in -αινω (-αν-) have -α_να instead of -ηνα; as γλυκαίνω
b. The poetic verbs retaining ς in the future ( cross536) retain it also in the aorist.
c. αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise is treated as if its verb-stem were ἀ_ρ- (contracted from ἀερ- in ἀείρω): aor. ἦρα, ἄ_ρω, ἄ_ραιμι, ἆρον, ἆραι, ἄ_ρας, and ἠράμην, ἄ_ρωμαι, ἀ_ραίμην, ἄ_ρασθαι, ἀ_ράμενος.
d. ἤνεγκα is used as the first aorist of φέρω
Hom. has Ionic -ηνα for -α_να after ι or ρ. Aeolic assimilates ς to a liquid; as ἔκριννα, ἀπέστελλα, ἐνέμματο, συνέρραισα (= συνείρα_σα). Cp. Hom. ὤφελλε (ὀφέλλω
Stop Verbs.—Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with ς to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before ς (cp. cross98).
a. On forms in ς from stems in γ see cross516.545D
Hom. often has σς from dental stems, as ἐκόμισσα ἐκομισσάμην (κομίζω). Doric has -ξα from most verbs in -ζω; Hom. also has ξ (ἥρπαξε). See cross516 D.
546 IV. SECOND AORIST SYSTEM (SECOND AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)
The second aorist is formed without any tense-suffix and only from the simple verb-stem. Only primitive verbs ( cross372) have second aorists.546D
Hom. has more second aorists than Attic, which favoured the first aorist. Some derivative verbs have Homeric second aorists classed under them for convenience only, as κτυπέω
(I) Ω-Verbs.—Ω-verbs make the second aorist by adding όε- to the verb-stem, which regularly ends in a consonant. Verbs showing vowel gradations ( cross476) use the weak stem (otherwise there would be confusion with the imperfect).
λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-)
Hom. often has no thematic vowel in the middle voice of ω-verbs (ἐδέγμην from δέχομαι
a. Vowel verbs rarely form second aorists, as the irregular αἰρέω
b. Many ω-verbs with stems ending in a vowel have second aorists formed like those of μι-verbs. These are enumerated in 687.549
Verbs of the First Class ( cross499) adding a thematic vowel to the verbstem form the second aorist (1) by reduplication ( cross494), as ἄγω
(1) Hom. has (ε') κέκλετο (κέλο-μαι
(II) Μι-Verbs.—The stem of the second aorist of μι-verbs is the verb-stem without any thematic vowel. In the indicative active the strong form of the stem, which ends in a vowel, is regularly employed. The middle uses the weak stem form.
ἵ-στη-μι (στα-, στη-)
Originally only the dual and plural showed the weak forms, which are retained in the second aorists of τίθημι, δίδωμι, and ἵ_ημι: ἔθεμεν, ἔδομεν, εἷμεν (ἐ-έμεν), and in Hom. βάτην (also βήτην) from ἔβην
a. For the singular of τίθημι, δίδωμι, ἵ_ημι, see cross755; for the imperatives, 759; for the infinitives, 760.551D
Hom. has ἔκταν
No verb in -υ_μι has a second aorist in Attic from the stem in υ.553
The difference between an imperfect and an aorist depends formally on the character of the present. Thus ἔ-φη-ν
a. The second aorist and the second perfect are usually formed only from primitive verbs ( cross372). These tenses are formed by adding the personal endings (inclusive of the thematic or tense vowel) to the verb-stem without any consonant tense-suffix. Cp. ἔλιπο-ν with ἔλυ_-ς-α, ἐτράπ-ην with ἐτρέφ-θ-ην (τρέπω
b. The second perfect and second aorist passive are historically older than the corresponding first perfect and first aorist.
d. Very few verbs have both the second aorist active and the second aorist passive. In cases where both occur, one form is rare, as ἔτυπον (once in poetry), ἐτύπην (τύπτω
e. In the same voice both the first and the second aorist (or perfect) are rare, as ἔφθασα, ἔφθην (φθάνω
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].