Many, if not all, future forms in ς are in reality subjunctives of the first aorist. λύ_σω, παιδεύσω, λείψω, στήσω are alike future indicative and aorist subjunctive in form. In poetry and in some dialects there is no external difference between the future indicative and the aorist subjunctive when the latter has (as often in Hom.) a short mood-sign ( cross457 D.); e.g., Hom. βήσομεν, ἀμείψεται, Ionic inscriptions ποιήσει.533
The future stem is formed by adding the tense-suffix -σόε- (-εσόε- in liquid stems, cross535) to the verb-stem: λύ_-σω,
Vowel Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in a short vowel lengthen the vowel before the tense suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ). Thus, τι_μάω, τι_μήσω; ἐάω, ἐά_σω; φιλέω, φιλήσω.
a. On χράω
b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel, see cross488.534D
Doric and Aeolic always lengthen α to α_ (τι_μά_σω).
b. In verbs with stems originally ending in -ς Hom. often has σς in the future: ἀνύω ἀνύσσεσθαι, τελέω τελέσσω; by analogy ὄλλυ_μι ὀλέσσω (and ὀλέσω, ὀλεῖται).
Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ, add -εσόε-; then ς drops and ε contracts with the following vowel.
These futures are often uncontracted in Homer (βαλέω, κτενέεις, ἀγγελέουσιν); regularly in Aeolic; in Hdt. properly only when ε comes before ο or ω.536
ς is retained in the poetic forms κέλσω (κέλλω
Stop Verbs.—Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with ς to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before ς ( cross98).
a. When ε or ο is added to the verb-stem, it is lengthened to η or ω: as βούλομαι (βουλ-ε-)
Doric has -ξω from most verbs in -ζω ( cross516 D.).538
Attic Future.—Certain formations of the future are called
These futures usually occur when ς is preceded by α or ε and these vowels are not preceded by a syllable long by nature or position. Here ς is dropped and -άω and -έω are contracted to -ῶ. When ι precedes ς, the ending is ι- (ς) έω which contracts to -ιῶ.
b. ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-) drive has Hom. ἐλάω, Attic ἐλῶ.—καθέζομαι (καθεδ-)
For Hom. -οω for -αω, see cross645.
c. All verbs in -αννυ_μι have futures in -ά (ς) ω, -ῶ. Thus, σκεδάννυ_μι (σκεδα-)
d. A very few verbs in -αζω have the contracted form. βιβάζω (βιβαδ-)
e. Verbs in -ιζω of more than two syllables drop ς and insert ε, thus making -ι (ς) έω, -ι (ς) έομαι, which contract to -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι, as in the Doric future ( cross540).
So νομίζω (νομιδ-)
N.—Such forms in Attic texts as ἐλάσω, τελέσω, νομίσω, βιβάσω are erroneous.539D
Hom. has ἀεικιῶ, κομιῶ, κτεριῶ; and also τελέω, καλέω, ἐλάω, ἀντιόω, δαμόωσι ( cross645), ἀνύω, ἐρύουσι, τανύουσι. Hdt. always uses the -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι forms. Homeric futures in -εω have a liquid before ε, and are analogous to the futures of liquid verbs.540
Doric Future.—Some verbs, which have a future middle with an active meaning, form the stem of the future middle by adding -σεόε-, and contracting -σέομαι to -σοῦμαι. Such verbs (except νέω, πί_πτω) have also the regular future in -σομαι.
κλαίω (κλαυ-, cross520)
a. The inflection of the Doric future is as follows:—
|λυ_σῶ, -σοῦμαι||λυ_σοῦμες, -σούμεθα||λυ_σῶν, -σούμενος|
|λυ_σεῖς, -σῇ||λυ_σεῖτε, -σεῖσθε||λυ_σεῖν, -σεῖσθαι|
|λυ_σεῖ, -σεῖται||λυ_σοῦντι, -σοῦνται|
b. These are called
c. Attic πεσοῦμαι (Hom. πεσέομαι) from πί_πτω
Hom. ἐσσεῖται (and ἔσσεται, ἔσεται, ἔσται). In Doric there are three forms: (1) -σέω (and -σῶ), -σέομαι (and -σοῦμαι); and often with ευ from εο as -εῦντι, -εῦμες; (2) -σίω with ι from ε before ο and ω; (3) the Attic forms.541
Futures with Present Forms.—The following verbs have no future suffix, the future thus having the form of a present: ἔδομαι (ἐδ-) eat, πί_ομαι (πι-)
a. These are probably old subjunctives which have retained their future meaning. In ἔδομαι and πί_ομαι the mood-sign is short ( cross457 D.). Hom. has βέομαι or βείομαι
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].