Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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II. FUTURE SYSTEM (FUTURE ACTIVE AND MIDDLE) 532

Many, if not all, future forms in ς are in reality subjunctives of the first aorist. λύ_σω, παιδεύσω, λείψω, στήσω are alike future indicative and aorist subjunctive in form. In poetry and in some dialects there is no external difference between the future indicative and the aorist subjunctive when the latter has (as often in Hom.) a short mood-sign ( cross457 D.); e.g., Hom. βήσομεν, ἀμείψεται, Ionic inscriptions ποιήσει.

533

The future stem is formed by adding the tense-suffix -σόε- (-εσόε- in liquid stems, cross535) to the verb-stem: λύ_-σω, I shall (or will) loose, λύ_σομαι; θή-σω from τί-θη-μι place; δείξω from δείκ-νυ_-μι show.

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades ( cross476) the ending is added to the strong stem: λείπω λείψω, τήκω τήξω, πνέω πνεύσομαι ( cross503), δίδωμι δώσω.

534

Vowel Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in a short vowel lengthen the vowel before the tense suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ). Thus, τι_μάω, τι_μήσω; ἐάω, ἐά_σω; φιλέω, φιλήσω.

a. On χράω give oracles, χράομαι use, ἀκροάομαι hear, see cross487 a.

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel, see cross488.

534D

Doric and Aeolic always lengthen α to α_ (τι_μά_σω).

b. In verbs with stems originally ending in Hom. often has σς in the future: ἀνύω ἀνύσσεσθαι, τελέω τελέσσω; by analogy ὄλλυ_μι ὀλέσσω (and ὀλέσω, ὀλεῖται).

-- 171 --

535

Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ, add -εσόε-; then ς drops and ε contracts with the following vowel.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, φανῶ, φανεῖς from φαν-έ (ς) ω, φαν-έ (ς) εις; στέλλω (στελ-) send, στελοῦμεν, στελεῖτε from στελ-έ (ς) ομεν, στελ-έ (ς) ετε. See p. 128.

535D

These futures are often uncontracted in Homer (βαλέω, κτενέεις, ἀγγελέουσιν); regularly in Aeolic; in Hdt. properly only when ε comes before ο or ω.

536

ς is retained in the poetic forms κέλσω (κέλλω land, κελ-), κύρσω (κύ_ρω meet, κυρ-), θέρσομαι (θέρομαι warm myself, θερ-), ὄρσω (ὄρνυ_μι rouse, ὀρ-). So also in the aorist. See ἀραρίσκω, εἴλω, κείρω, φθείρω, φύ_ρω in the List of Verbs.

537

Stop Verbs.—Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with ς to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before ς ( cross98).

κόπ-τ-ω (κοπ-) cut, κόψω, κόψομαι; βλάπ-τ-ω (βλαβ-) injure, βλάψω, βλάψομαι; γράφ-ω write, γράψω, γράψομαι; πλέκ-ω weave, πλέξω, πλέξομαι; λέγ-ω say, λέξω, λέξομαι; ταράττω (ταραχ-) disturb, ταράξω, ταράξομαι; φράζω (φραδ-) say, φράσω; πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-) persuade, πείσω, πείσομαι.

a. When ε or ο is added to the verb-stem, it is lengthened to η or ω: as βούλομαι (βουλ-ε-) wish βουλήσομαι, ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-) am captured ἁλώσομαι. So also in the first aorist and in other tenses where lengthening is regular.

537D

Doric has -ξω from most verbs in -ζω ( cross516 D.).

538

Attic Future.—Certain formations of the future are called Attic because they occur especially in that dialect in contrast to the later language; they occur also in Homer, Herodotus, and in other dialects.

539

These futures usually occur when ς is preceded by α or ε and these vowels are not preceded by a syllable long by nature or position. Here ς is dropped and -άω and -έω are contracted to -ῶ. When ι precedes ς, the ending is ι- (ς) έω which contracts to -ιῶ.

a. καλέω call, τελέω finish drop the ς of καλέσω καλέσομαι, τελέσω τελέσομαι and the resulting Attic forms are καλῶ καλοῦμαι, τελῶ (τελοῦμαι poetic).

b. ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-) drive has Hom. ἐλάω, Attic ἐλῶ.—καθέζομαι (καθεδ-) sit has Attic καθεδοῦμαι.—μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-) fight has Hom. μαχέσομαι (and μαχήσομαι), Attic μαχοῦμαι.—ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε-) destroy has Hom. ὀλέσω, Attic ὀλῶ.

539. b. D

For Hom. -οω for -αω, see cross645.

c. All verbs in -αννυ_μι have futures in (ς) ω, -ῶ. Thus, σκεδάννυ_μι (σκεδα-) scatter, poet. σκεδάσω, Attic σκεδῶ. Similarly some verbs in -εννυ_μι: ἀμφιέννυ_μι (ἀμφιε-) clothe, Epic ἀμφιέσω, Attic ἀμφιῶ; στόρνυ_μι (στορ-ε-) spread, late στορέσω, Attic στορῶ.

d. A very few verbs in -αζω have the contracted form. βιβάζω (βιβαδ-) cause to go usually has Attic βιβῶ from βιβάσω. So ἐξετῶμεν ἐξετάσομεν from ἐξετάζω examine.

e. Verbs in -ιζω of more than two syllables drop ς and insert ε, thus making (ς) έω, -ι (ς) έομαι, which contract to -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι, as in the Doric future ( cross540).

-- 172 --

So νομίζω (νομιδ-) consider makes νομισεω, νομι-εω, νομιῶ and in like manner νομιοῦμαι, both inflected like ποιῶ, ποιοῦμαι. So ἐθιοῦσι, οἰκιοῦντες from ἐθίζω accustom, οἰκίζω colonize. But σχίζω (σχιδ-) split makes σχίσω. νομιῶ etc. are due to the analogy of the liquid verbs.

N.—Such forms in Attic texts as ἐλάσω, τελέσω, νομίσω, βιβάσω are erroneous.

539D

Hom. has ἀεικιῶ, κομιῶ, κτεριῶ; and also τελέω, καλέω, ἐλάω, ἀντιόω, δαμόωσι ( cross645), ἀνύω, ἐρύουσι, τανύουσι. Hdt. always uses the -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι forms. Homeric futures in -εω have a liquid before ε, and are analogous to the futures of liquid verbs.

540

Doric Future.—Some verbs, which have a future middle with an active meaning, form the stem of the future middle by adding -σεόε-, and contracting -σέομαι to -σοῦμαι. Such verbs (except νέω, πί_πτω) have also the regular future in -σομαι.

κλαίω (κλαυ-, cross520) weep κλαυσοῦμαι, νέω (νυ-, νευ-) swim νευσοῦμαι (doubtful), πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-) sail πλευσοῦμαι, πνέω (πνυ-, πνευ-) breathe πνευσοῦμαι, πί_πτω (πετ-) fall πεσοῦμαι, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-, πευθ-) πευσοῦμαι (once), φεύγω (φυγ-, φευγ-) φευξοῦμαι, χέζω (χεδ-) χεσοῦμαι.

a. The inflection of the Doric future is as follows:—

λυ_σῶ, -σοῦμαιλυ_σοῦμες, -σούμεθαλυ_σῶν, -σούμενος
λυ_σεῖς, -σῇλυ_σεῖτε, -σεῖσθελυ_σεῖν, -σεῖσθαι
λυ_σεῖ, -σεῖταιλυ_σοῦντι, -σοῦνται

b. These are called Doric futures because Doric usually makes all futures (active and middle) in -σέω -σῶ, -σέομαι -σοῦμαι.

c. Attic πεσοῦμαι (Hom. πεσέομαι) from πί_πτω fall comes from πετεομαι. Attic ἔπεσον is derived from 2 aor. ἔπετον (Dor. and Aeol.) under the influence of πεσοῦμαι.

540D

Hom. ἐσσεῖται (and ἔσσεται, ἔσεται, ἔσται). In Doric there are three forms: (1) -σέω (and -σῶ), -σέομαι (and -σοῦμαι); and often with ευ from εο as -εῦντι, -εῦμες; (2) -σίω with ι from ε before ο and ω; (3) the Attic forms.

541

Futures with Present Forms.—The following verbs have no future suffix, the future thus having the form of a present: ἔδομαι (ἐδ-) eat, πί_ομαι (πι-) drink, χέω (χυ-) and χέομαι, pour. See cross529. 5, 8.

a. These are probably old subjunctives which have retained their future meaning. In ἔδομαι and πί_ομαι the mood-sign is short ( cross457 D.). Hom. has βέομαι or βείομαι live, δήω find, κήω (written κείω) lie, ἐξανύω achieve, ἐρύω draw, τανύω strelch, and ἀλεύεται avoid. νέομαι go is for νεσομαι.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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