From the verb-stem (or theme) the present stem is formed in several ways. All verbs are arranged in the present system according to the method of forming the present stem from the verbstem. Verbs are named according to the last letter of the verb-stem ( cross376): 1. Vowel Verbs, 2. Liquid Verbs (including liquids and nasals), 3. Stop Verbs.497 1. PRESENT SYSTEM(PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)
The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five different ways. There are, therefore, five classes of present stems. The verb-stem is sometimes the present stem, but usually it is strengthened in different ways. A sixth class consists of irregular verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or stems of other tenses.498 FIRST OR SIMPLE CLASS
Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem with or without the thematic vowel.499
(I) Presents with the thematic vowel (ω-verbs). The present stem is made by adding the thematic vowel όε- to the verb-stem, as λύ_-ω, παιδεύ-ω, παύ-ω, μέν-ω, πείθ-ω, φεύγ-ω, and the denominative verbs τι_μά-ω, φιλέ-ω, βασιλεύ-ω. For the personal endings, see cross463 ff. For the derivation of many of these verbs, see cross522.500
The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -υω or -ιω.
1. a. Verbs in -υω generally have υ_ in Attic in the present; as λύ_ω
κωκύ_ω, κωλύ_ω (usually), μηνύ_ω, ὀπύ_ω (ὀπυίω), πτύ_ω, ῥύ_ομαι, στύ_ομαι, τρύ_ω, ὕ_ει; possibly in εἰλύομαι, ἠμύω, μύω, ξύω, φλύω; ἐλινύω, μηρύομαι, πληθύω (once υ), φι_τύω. ὠρύω (υ_) is doubtful.
b. -υω has υ short in ἀνύω, ἀρύω, βρύω, κλύω (but κλῦθι), μεθύω, and in all verbs in -νυω.5001D
Homer has short υ in ἀλύω, ἀνύω, βρύω, δύω, ἐρύω, ἠμύω, τανύω, φύω, and in all denominative verbs except ἐρητύ_οντο and ἐπι_θύ_ουσι, where υ_ is metrically necessary; long υ in ξύ_ω, πτύ_ω, ὕ_ω; anceps in θυω
2. Hom. has ι_ in the primitives πί_ομαι and χρί_ω; but τιω and τί_ω (τείω?); -ιω in denominatives (except μήνι_ε B cross769). κονί_ω, ὀί_ομαι are from κονι (ς) -yω, ὀι (ς) -yομαι.
3. Where Attic has υ_, ι_ in the present, and Epic υ, ι, the former are due to the influence of υ_, ι_ in the future and aorist.
2. Attic has ι_ in primitive verbs in -ιω, as πρί_ω, χρί_ω, χλί_ω, but ι in τίω. Denominative verbs have ι_; but ἐσθιω.501
Several verbs with medial ι_, υ_ in the present, show ι or ι_, υ or υ_ in some other tense or tenses. Thus, θλί_βω
Verb-stems having the weak grades α, ι, υ, show the strong grades η, ει, ευ in the present; as τήκ-ω (τακ-)
a. To this class belong also λήθω, σήπω, τέθηπα
Present Stems in -εοε- for ευόε-.—The strong form ευ before the thematic vowel became εϝ (ευ) and then ε ( cross20 a, cross43) in the verbs θέω
These verbs end in -ευω in Aeolic (πνεύω etc.). Epic πλείω, πνείω have ει by metrical lengthening ( cross28 D.).504
(II) Presents without the thematic vowel (μι-verbs). The personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong forms η, ω in the singular, weak forms ε (α), ο in the dual and plural. Thus τί-θη-μι, τί-θε-μεν; ἵ-στη-μι for σι-στη-μι (= σι-στα_-μι), ἵ-στα-μεν; δί-δω-μι, δί-δο-μεν.505 SECOND OR T CLASS (VERBS IN -πτω)
The present stem is formed by adding -το/ε- to the verbstem, which ends in π, β, or φ. The verb-stem is ascertained from the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same root.
|κόπτω ||verb-stem κοπ-||in 2 aor. pass. ἐ-κόπ-ην.|
|βλάπτω ||“ “ βλαβ-||“ “ “ ἐ-βλάβ-ην.|
|καλύπτω ||“ “ καλυβ-||“ καλύβ-η |
|ῥί_πτω ||“ “ ῥιφ-, ῥι_φ-||“ 2 aor. pass. ἐ-ρρίφ-ην.|
Some of the verbs of this class add ε in the present or other tenses, as ῥι_πτέω
Dental Verb-stems.—Verb-stems in δ unite with y to form presents in -ζω ( cross116), as φράζω
Aeolic has -σδω for -ζω.509
Stems in γ.—Some verbs in -ζω are derived from stems in γ preceded by a vowel; as ἁρπάζω
A few verbs with stems in γγ lose one γ and have presents in -ζω; as κλάζω
ῥεγyω, ἐργyω yield ῥέζω
Palatal Verb-stems.—Stems ending in κ or χ unite with y to form presents in -ττω (-σσω).
Several verbs showing forms in γ seem to unite γ with y to form presents in -ττω (-σσω.) Thus ἀλλάττω
a. So δράττομαι
Some presents in -ττω (-σσω) are formed from stems in τ, θ like those from κ, χ.
a. So also βλίττω
Formations by Analogy.—a. As γ y and δ y unite to form ζ, none of the verbs in -ττω can be derived from -γyω or -δyω. Since the future and aorist of verbs in -ζω might often seem to be derived from stems in κ, χ, or τ, θ, uncertainty arose as to these tenses: thus the future σφάξω (σφαγ-σω) from Epic σφάζω
Homer has many cases of this confusion; as πολεμίζω (πολεμιδ-) but πολεμίξω. In Doric the ξ forms from -ζω verbs are especially common, as χωρίζω
(I) Presents in -λλω are formed from verb-stems in λ, to which y is assimilated ( cross110). Thus, ἀγγέλλω
(II) Presents in -αινω and -αιρω are formed from verb-stems in -αν and -αρ, the y being thrown back to unite with the vowel of the verb-stem ( cross111). Thus, φαίνω
a. Many verbs add -yω to the weak form of the stem, as ὀνομαίν-ω for ὀνομαν-yω from ὀνομ-yω, cp.
b. Hom. has κυ_δαίνω and κυ_δάνω
c. The ending αινω has been attached, by analogy, in θερμαίνω
(III) Presents in -εινω, -ειρω, -ι_νω, -ι_ρω, -υ_νω, and -ι_ρω are formed from stems in εν, ερ, ιν, ιρ, υν, υρ with yόε- added. Here y disappears and the vowel preceding ν or ρ is lengthened by compensation (ε to ει; ι to ι_; υ to υ_). See cross37 a, cross111.
a. ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-) owe, am obliged is formed like τείνω, φθείρω in order to distinguish it from ὀφέλλω (ὀφελ-) increase formed regularly. Hom. has usually Aeolic ὀφέλλω in the sense of ὀφείλω. δείρω
Aeolic has here -εννω, -ερρω, -ιννω, -ιρρω, -υννω, -υρρω ( cross37 D. 3); for κτείνω, it has κταίνω; cp. Doric φθαίρω for φθείρω.520
Verb-stems in -αυ- for (αw, -αϜ-) .—Two verbs with verb-stems in -αυ have presents in -αιω from -αιϝω out of -αϝ-yω ( cross38 a) : καίω
a. Attic prose often has κά_ω and κλά_ω, derived from αιϝ before ει (κά_εις, and, with α_ extended to the 1 person, κά_ω). Cp. cross396.521
Addition of ε.—The following verbs add ε in one or more tense-stems other than the present: βάλλω
Contracted Verbs and Some Verbs in -ιω, -υω.—a. Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω, which for convenience have been treated under the first class, properly belong here, y (
N.—The rare spellings ἀλυίω, θυίω, μεθυίω, φυίω indicate their origin from -yω.
b. So with stems in long vowels: δρῶ
The present stem of the N class is formed from the verbstem by the addition of a suffix containing ν.
a. -νόε- is added: δάκ-νω
So δύ_νω, κάμνω, πί_νω, πίτνω poet., τίνω, φθάνω, φθίνω.
b. -ανόε- is added: αἰσθ-άν-ομαι
So αὐξάνω, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, οἰδάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω ( cross526).
c. -ανόε- is added and a nasal (μ, ν, or γ nasal) inserted in the verb-stem: λα-μ-β-άν-ω (λαβ-)
d. -νεόε- is added: βυ_-νέ-ω
e. -υνόε- is added: ἐλαύνω
f. -νυ (-ννυ after a short vowel) is added (second class of μι-verbs, cross414): δείκ-νυ_-μι
N. 1.—The forms in -ννυ_μι spread from ἕννυ_μι, σβέννυ_μι, which are derived from ἑς-νυ_μι, σβες-νυ_μι.
N. 2.—Some verbs in -νω are formed from -νϝόε- for -νwόε-; as Hom. τί_νω, φθί_νω, φθά_νω, ἄ_νομαι from τι-νϝ-ω, etc., ( cross37 D. 1). Attic τινω, etc. dropped the ϝ.
g. -να, -νη are added (third class of μι-verbs cross412); as in (poetic) δάμ-νη-μι
In two further divisions there is a transition to the Iota Class.
i. -αινόε- for αν-yόε is added: ὀσφραίνομαι
A short vowel of the verb-stem is lengthened in the case of some verbs to form one or more of the tense-stems other than the present. Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-)
Addition of ε and ο.—a. Many verbs add ε to the verb-stem to form all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect; as αἰσθάνομαι, ἁμαρτάνω, ἁνδάνω, αὐξάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, κιγχάνω, μανθάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. One or more tenses with ε added are formed by κερδαίνω, ὄλλυ_μι, ὀσφραίνομαι, στόρνυ_μι, τυγχάνω.
The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -σκόε- to the verb-stem if it ends in a vowel; -ισκόε- if it ends in a consonant. Thus, ἀρέ-σκω
a. This class is called
b. In θνῄσκω
c. The verb-stem is often reduplicated in the present; as γι-γνώ-σκω
Hom. has ἐΐσκω
e. The present stem often shows the strong grades ω (weak ο) and α_ or η (weak α). See b, c. Weak grades appear in φάσκω
f. On the iteratives in -σκω see cross495.527
The following verbs belong to this class (poetic and Ionic forms are starred):
a. Vowel stems: ἀλδήσκω (ἀλδη-), ἀναβιώσκομαι (βιο-), ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), βάσκω (βα- for β-, 35 b), βιβρώσκω (βρο-), βλώσκω (μολ-, μλο-, βλο-, 130 D.), βόσκω (βο-), γενειάσκω (cp. γενειάω), γηράσκω (γηρα-), γιγνώσκω (γνο-), δεδίσκομαι
b. Consonant stems: ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-), ἀλύσκω (ἀλυκ-), ἀμβλίσκω (ἀμβλ- ἀμβλο-), ἀμπλακίσκω (ἀμπλακ-), ἀνα_λίσκω (ἀν-α_λ-ο-), ἀπαφίσκω (ἀπ-αφ-), ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ-), δεδίσκομαι
Addition of ε and ο.—στερίσκω
This class includes some irregular verbs, one or more of whose tense-stems are quite different from others, as Eng. am, was, be, Lat. sum, fui. For the full list of forms see the List of Verbs.
1. αἱρέω (αἱρε-, ἑλ-)
2. εἶδον (ϝιδ-, ἰδ-) saw, vidi, 2 aorist (with no present act.); 2 pf. οἶδα
3. εἶπον (εἰπ-, ἐρ-, ῥε-) spoke, 2 aor. (no pres.); fut. (ἐρέω) ἐρῶ, perf. εἴ-ρη-κα, εἴρημαι, aor. pass. ἐρρήθην. The stem ἐρ- is for ϝερ-, seen in Lat. ver-bum. (Cp. cross492.) ῥε- is for ϝρε, hence εἴρημαι for ϝε-ϝρη-μαι.
4. ἔρχομαι (ἐρχ-, ἐλευθ-, ἐλυθ-, ἐλθ-), go. Fut. ἐλεύσομαι (usually poet.), 2 perf. ἐλήλυθα, 2 aor. ἦλθον. The Attic future is εἶμι
5. ἐσθίω (ἐσθ-, ἐδ-, φαγ-) eat, fut. ἔδομαι ( cross541), pf. ἐδήδοκα, -ἐδήδεσμαι, ἠδέσθην, 2 aor. ἔφαγον.
6. ὁράω (ὁρα-, ὀπ-, ϝιδ-) see, fut. ὄψομαι, perf. ἑώρα_κα or ἑόρα_κα, perf. mid. ἑώρα_μαι or ὦμμαι (ὠπ-μαι), ὤφθην, 2 aor. εἶδον (see cross2 above).
9. τρέχω (τρεχ- for θρεχ- ( cross125 g), δραμ-, δραμε-) run, fut. δραμοῦμαι, pf. δεδράμηκα, 2 aor. ἔδραμον.
11. ὠνέομαι (ὠνε-, πρια-) buy, fut. ὠνήσομαι, perf. ἐώνημαι, ἐωνήθην. For ἐωνησάμην the form ἐπριάμην is used.530
Apart from the irregularities of Class VI, some verbs may, by the formation of the verb-stem, belong to more than one class, as βαίνω (III, IV), ὀσφραίνομαι (III, IV), ὀφλισκάνω (IV, V).531
Many verbs have alternative forms, often of different classes, as κυ_δάνω κυ_δαίνω
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].