Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Insertion of ς.—In the perfect middle and first aorist passive systems, verbs which retain a short final vowel and some others usually insert ς before the personal ending.

Thus, τελέω ( cross488 d), τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην; σπάω draw, ἔσπασμαι, ἐσπάσθην; κελεύω order, κεκέλευσμαι, ἐκελεύσθην; γιγνώσκω know, ἔγνωσμαι, ἐγνώσθην.

a. If the aorist passive ends in -θην and not in -σθην, the perfect middle does not insert ς. Thus -θην, not -σθην, occurs in all verbs in -ευω except λεύω stone to death, in all verbs in -εω which have -θην preceded by η, in all verbs in -οω except χόω heap up, and in all verbs in -αω except those that retain α. Stems originally ending in ς ( cross624) properly show ς.

b. If the aorist passive ends in -σθην, the perfect middle may or may not insert ς. Verbs in -αζω and -ιζω (stems -αδ, -ιδ) regularly have ς by 83, 587. In the case of other verbs some always show ς, some never show ς, and some are doubtful. In many cases the later usage with ς has crept into the Mss. of

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the classical authors (so with the perfect of ἀλέω, βαίνω, δράω, ζώννυ_μι, κλείω (κλῄω), σῴζω, χρί_ω, and with the aorist of παύω).

c. The following verbs show an inserted ς both in the perfect middle and the aorist passive in classical Greek: αἰδέομαι, γιγνώσκω, ἑλκύω, θλάω, θραύω, κελεύω, κλάω, κνα (ί) ω, κορέννυ_μι, κυλί_ω, ξύ_ω, πίμπλημι, πρί_ω, πτίττω, σβέννυ_μι, σείω, σκεδάννυ_μι, σπάω, τανύω, τελέω, τίνω, ὕ_ω, φλάω, χόω, χρῴζω.

d. The following form only the perfect middle with ς in classical Greek: βυ_νέω, ἕννυ_μι (εἷμαι, but ἕστο Hom.), ἐρύω, ζώννυ_μι, ξέω, Οδύσσομαι, πλέω, φλεύω (Hdt.).

e. The following form only the aorist passive with ς in classical Greek: ἄγαμαι, ἀκούω, ἀνύω, ἀρέσκω, ἄχθομαι, γελάω, δαίνυ_μι, δράω, ἐλύω, ἔραμαι, ἐράω, ἱ_λάσκομαι, κλείω (κλῄω), λεύω, μεθύσκω, μιμνῄσκω, ὀί_ω, ὄνομαι (Hdt.), παίω, παλαίω, πετάννυ_μι, πίμπρημι, ῥαίω, ῥώννυ_μι, στόρνυ_μι, χαλάω, χράομαι, χράω, χρἱ_ω.

f. Only in post-classical Greek is ς attested both in the perfect middle and aorist passive in ἀρκέω, ζέω, κλαίω, (ἀπο) λαύω, λόω, ὄλλυ_μι, πνέω, πταίω, σάω, ψαύω. —Only in the perfect middle: ἄγαμαι, ἀκούω, ἀνύω, γελάω, δράω, ἐμέω, ἔραμαι, κεράννυ_μι, κολούω, μεθύσκω, ναίω, νάω spin, ὀπυίω, παίω, παλαίω, πετάννυ_μι (and in Ionic), πίμπρημι (Aristotle; earlier perf. πέπρημαι), στόρνυ_μι, χαλάω, ψαύω. When the perfect middle is not attested in classical Greek some at least of the ς forms from the above verbs may represent classical usage, provided the aorist passive has -σθην.—Only in the aorist passive: ἀκέομαι, ἀλέω, ἀρύω, βαίνω, βυ_νέω, ψεύω, εἰλύω, ἐλαύνω, ἔρυμαι, ἐρύω, ζώννυ_μι, καίω, ξέω, μάχομαι, νέω heap up, Οδύσσομαι, πλέω, πτύω, σῴζω, φθάνω.

g. Some verbs have double forms (one of which may be disputed) in the classical period: δύναμαι: ἐδυνήθην and ἐδυνάσθην (chiefly Ionic and poetic); κεράννυ_μι: ἐκρά_θην and ἐκεράσθην; κρούω: κέκρουμαι better than κέκρουσμαι; νέω: νἑνημαι and νένησμαι; ὄμνυ_μι: ὀμώμομαι (and ὀμώμοσται), ὠμόθην and ὠμόσθην.— Dialectal or dialectal and late are ἐβώσθην for ἐβοήθην (βοάω), ἐλήλασμαι ἠλάσθην (ἐλαύνω), κεκόρημαι for κεκόρεσμαι (κορέννυ_μι), πεπέτασμαι (πετάννυ_μι).

h. Some verb-stems ending in ν show -ς-μαι in the perfect middle: ἡδύ_νω, μιαίνω, παχύ_νω, περαίνω, ὑφαίνω, φαίνω. Thus πέφασμαι, ἥδυσμαι, μεμίασμαι. Dialectal or late: θηλύ_νω, κοιλαίνω, λεπτύ_νω, λυ_μαίνομαι, ξαίνω, ξημαίνω, σημαίνω. On -μμαι see cross579.

i. Observe that some vowel verbs inserting ς do not lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem in any tense (γελάω, τελέω); and that some not inserting ς (δέω, θύ_ω, λύ_ω) do not lengthen the final vowel in some tenses. ἐπ-αινέω commend and παρ-αινέω exhort do not insert ς and have the short vowel in all tenses.

j. The insertion of ς in the perfect middle started in the 3 sing. and 2 pl. Before the endings -ται and -σθε, ς was retained in the case of verbs with stems originally ending in ς (as τελέω), or where ς developed from τ, δ, θ ( cross98) before -ται, -σθε (πέπεισται from πεπειθται). See cross409 b, cross624. In all cases where the verb-stem did not originally end in ς, the sigma forms are due to analogy; as in κεκέλευσμαι (κελεύω), πέπλησμαι (πίμπλημι), ἔγνωσμαι (γιγνώσκω).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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