Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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488

Retention of Short Final Vowel.—Many verb-stems ending apparently in a short vowel retain the short vowel, contrary to 487, in some or all the tenses.

γελα-ω laugh, γελασομαι, ἐγέλασα, ἐγελασθην; τελέω finish, τελῶ from τελέ-ω, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην; ἀνύω accomplish, ἀνυσω, ἤνυσα, ἤνυσμαι.

a. The following verbs retain the final short vowel of the verb-stem in all tenses: ἄγα-μαι, αἰδέ-ομαι, ἀκέ-ομαι, ἀλέ-ω, ἀνύ-ω, ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), ἀρκέ-ω, ἀρό-ω, ἀρύ-ω, γελά-ω, ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-), ἑλκύ-ω, and ἕλκ-ω (ἑλκ-ε-), ἐμέ-ω, ἐρά-ω, ἔρα-μαι (poet.), ἐσθίω (ἐσθι-, ἐδ-ε-, ἐδο-), ζέ-ω, θλά-ω, ἱ_λάσκομαι (ἱ_λα-), κλά-ω break, μεθύσκω (μεθυ-), ξέ-ω, πτύ_-ω (πτυ_-, πτυ-), σπά-ω, τελέ-ω, τρέ-ω, φθίνω (φθι-), φλά-ω, χαλά-ω, χέ-ω (χυ-). Also all verbs in -αννυ_μι and -εννυ_μι (except ἔσβηκα from σβέννυ_μι extinguish), and ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε-), ὄμνυ_μι (ὀμ-, ὀμε-, ὀμο-), στόρνυ_μι (στορ-ε).

b. The following verbs keep short the final vowel in the future, but lengthen it in one or more other tense-systems, or have double future forms, one with the short vowel, the other with the long vowel: αἰνέω (αἰνέσω, ᾔνεσα, ᾔνεκα, ᾐνέθην, ᾔνημαι), ἄχθομαι (ἀχθ-, ἀχθε-), καλέ-ω, μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-), μύ_ω, πί_νω (πι-, πο-), ποθέ-ω, πονέ-ω, ἐρύ-ω (Epic), φθάνω (φθα-).

c. In some verbs the final short vowel of the verb-stem remains short in one or more tense-stems, but is lengthened in the future, as δέ-ω bind, δήσω, ἔδησα, δέδεκα, δέδεμαι, ἐδέθην. So αἱρέω, βαίνω (βα-), βυ_νέω (βυ-), δίδωμι (δο-, δω-), δύνα-μαι, δύ_ω (δυ-, δυ_-), εὑρίσκω (εὑρ-ε-), ἔχω (σεχ-, σχε-), θύ_ω (θυ-, θυ_-), ἵημι (ἑ-, ἡ-), ἵστημι (στα-, στη-), λύ_ω (λυ-, λυ_-), τίθημι (θε-, θη-), τίνω (τι-), φύ_ω (φυ-, φυ_-), and the root ἐρ-, ῥε- (εἶπον).

d. Most of the verbs refusing to lengthen a final short vowel have verb-stems originally ending in ς ( cross624); as τελέω from τελες-yω (cp. τὸ τέλος). By analogy to these, other verbs retain their short final vowel.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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