Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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485

Addition of ε.—a. To the verb-stem ε is added to make the present stem in δοκέω seem, fut. δόξω, aor. ἔδοξα (δοκ-); so in γαμέω marry, ὠθέω push. Usually ε is added in some stem other than the present.

b. In many verbs ε is added to the verb-stem to form the tense-stems other than present, second aorist, and second perfect, e.g. μάχομαι (μαχ-) fight, μαχοῦμαι ( = μαχε (ς) ομαι), ἐμαχεσάμην, μεμάχημαι. So ἄχθομαι am grieved, βούλουαι wish, γίγνομαι become, δέω want, (ε') θέλω wish, μέλλω intend, μέλει is a care, οἴομαι think.

c. In some verbs ε is added to form one or more tense-stems, as μένω (μεν-) remain, μεμένηκα (μενε-) to avoid -ν-κα in the perfect. So, νέμω distribute, ἔχω have, οἴχομαι am gone. So also δαρθάνω, ὀσφαίνομαι, ῥέω, στείβω (poetic), τυγχάνω.

d. Some verbs have alternative presents with or without ε. Here sometimes one is used in prose, the other in poetry, sometimes both are poetic or both used in prose. Thus, ἕλκω draw (Hom. also ἑλκέω), ἰάχω ἰαχέω sound (both poetic), μέδω μεδέω (both poetic), ῥί_πτω and ῥι_πτέω throw (both in prose).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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